A fugacity model assessment of ibuprofen, diclofenac, carbamazepine, and their transformation product concentrations in an aquatic environment
Nurmi, T., Kiljunen, T., & Knuutinen, J. (2019). A fugacity model assessment of ibuprofen, diclofenac, carbamazepine, and their transformation product concentrations in an aquatic environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(1), 328-341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3485-x
Published inEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
© the Authors, 2018.
An updated version of FATEMOD, a multimedia fugacity model for environmental fate of organic chemicals, was set up to assess environmental behaviour of three pharmaceuticals in northern Lake Päijänne, Finland. Concentrations of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine were estimated at various depths at two sites: near a wastewater treatment plant and 3.5 km downstream the plant. When compared with environmental sampling data from corresponding depths and sites, the predicted concentrations, ranging from nanograms to hundreds of nanograms per litre, were found to be in good agreement. Weather data were utilised with the model to rationalise the effects of various environmental parameters on the sampling results, and, e.g. the roles of various properties of lake dynamics and photodegradation were identified. The new model also enables simultaneous assessment of transformation products. Environmentally formed transformation product concentrations were estimated to be at highest an order of magnitude lower than those of the parent compounds, and unlikely to reach a detectable level. However, a possibility that conjugates of ibuprofen are present at higher levels than the parent compound was identified. Simulation results suggest that environmental degradation half-lives of the inspected contaminants under stratified lake conditions are in the range of some weeks to months. ...