Using altered states of consciousness in improvisational music therapy : the potential of resonance frequency breathing
Improvisational music therapy is a type of creative arts therapy in which clients are encouraged to express themselves through the symbolic and non-verbal medium of music, by creating free music improvisations together with the therapist. The present research aims at investigating whether the efficacy of this method can be further enhanced by purposefully accessing the ego-quieting properties of altered states of consciousness. This work proceeds in three main steps. First, the notions of consciousness and its alteration are examined and reformulated, resulting in a more comprehensive theoretical model. Then, existing methods for inducing altered states of consciousness are evaluated in terms of suitability for the context of improvisational music therapy. This leads to the selection of resonance frequency breathing (RFB), a cardiorespiratory intervention known for its ability to balance the autonomic nervous system, reduce stress, and improve emotional regulation. Lastly, the effects and potential benefits of RFB are investigated through three single-case experimental studies, where 10 minutes of RFB are added at the beginning of every other therapy session, in alternation with a control intervention. The results suggest that RFB has the ability to both deepen and support the processes naturally occurring during therapy, by either favouring the emergence of difficult emotions and therapeutically relevant themes, or helping with the regulation of excessive arousal, depending on the client’s current needs and coping abilities. Therefore, RFB seems to be an adaptive intervention whose apparent therapy-enhancing effects should also result in better outcomes. This last point is currently being investigated in a randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy for adults with depression. ...
- Artikkeli I: Brabant, O. (2016). More than meets the Eye : Towards a Post-materialist Model of Consciousness. Explore : The Journal of Science and Healing, 12 (5), 347-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.explore.2016.06.006
- Artikkeli II: Brabant, O., Solati, S., Letule, N., Liarmakopoulou, O., & Erkkilä, J. (2017). Favouring emotional processing in improvisational music therapy through resonance frequency breathing: a single-case experimental study with a healthy client. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 26 (5), 453-472. DOI: 10.1080/08098131.2016.1277253
- Artikkeli III: Brabant, O., van de Ree, M., & Erkkilä, J. (2017). The effect of resonance frequency breathing when used as a preparatory exercise in music psychotherapy : A single-case experimental study of a client with anxiety disorder. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 56, 7-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.aip.2017.08.004
- Artikkeli IV: Brabant, O., & Erkkilä, J. (2018). Enhancing improvisational music therapy through the addition of resonance frequency breathing : Common findings of three single-case experimental studies. Music Therapy Perspectives, 36 (2), 224-233. DOI: 10.1093/mtp/miy009
- Artikkeli V: Erkkilä, Jaakko; Brabant, Olivier; Saarikallio, Suvi; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Hartmann, Martin; Letule, Nerdinga; Geretsegger, Monika; Gold, Christian (2019). Enhancing the efficacy of integrative improvisational music therapy in the treatment of depression : study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 20 (0), 244. DOI: 10.1186/s13063-019-3323-6
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Favouring emotional processing in improvisational music therapy through resonance frequency breathing: a single-case experimental study with a healthy client Brabant, Olivier; Solati, Safa; Letule, Nerdinga; Liarmakopoulou, Ourania; Erkkilä, Jaakko (Taylor & Francis; Routledge, 2017)Resonance frequency breathing (RFB) is a form of slow breathing at around six breaths/min, whose immediate effects are to substantially increase heart rate variability (HRV) and to reduce stress levels. Since RFB has already ...
Enhancing the efficacy of integrative improvisational music therapy in the treatment of depression : study protocol for a randomised controlled trial Erkkilä, Jaakko; Brabant, Olivier; Saarikallio, Suvi; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Hartmann, Martin; Letule, Nerdinga; Geretsegger, Monika; Gold, Christian (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019)Background Depression is among the leading causes of disability worldwide. Not all people with depression respond adequately to standard treatments. An innovative therapy that has shown promising results in controlled ...
Enhancing improvisational music therapy through the addition of resonance frequency breathing : Common findings of three single-case experimental studies Brabant, Olivier; Erkkilä, Jaakko (Oxford University Press, 2018)One core characteristic of active music therapy is the facilitation of emotional expression through the creation of music improvisations. In an attempt to further develop this approach, we created an enhanced form of ...
Music Therapy for Depression Enhanced With Listening Homework and Slow Paced Breathing : A Randomised Controlled Trial Erkkilä, Jaakko; Brabant, Olivier; Hartmann, Martin; Mavrolampados, Anastasios; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Snape, Nerdinga; Saarikallio, Suvi; Gold, Christian (Frontiers Media SA, 2021)Introduction: There is evidence from earlier trials for the efficacy of music therapy in the treatment of depression among working-age people. Starting therapy sessions with relaxation and revisiting therapeutic themes ...
Hänninen, Suvi (2014)Filhan(2010) arvion mukaan hengityssairaudet koskettavat vuosittain miljoonaa suomalaista. Tutkimus tarjoaa vaihtoehdon potilaan omaa vastuuta korostavaan kuntoutukseen. Astmaryhmälle, kaksi lasta ja aikuinen, sekä ...