Exploring the applicability of dissipative fluid dynamics to small systems by comparison to the Boltzmann equation
Gallmeister, K.; Niemi, Harri; Greiner, C.; Rischke, D. H. (2018). Exploring the applicability of dissipative fluid dynamics to small systems by comparison to the Boltzmann equation. Physical Review C, 98 (2), 024912. DOI: 10.1103/physrevc.98.024912
Published inPhysical Review C
© 2018 American Physical Society
Background: Experimental data from heavy-ion experiments at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN are quantitatively described using relativistic fluid dynamics. Even p+A and p+p collisions show signs of collective behavior describable in the same manner. Nevertheless, small system sizes and large gradients strain the limits of applicability of fluid-dynamical methods. Purpose: The range of applicability of fluid dynamics for the description of the collective behavior, and in particular of the elliptic flow, of small systems needs to be explored. Method: Results of relativistic fluid-dynamical simulations are compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equation in a longitudinally boost-invariant picture. As the initial condition, several different transverse energy-density profiles for equilibrated matter are investigated. Results: While there is overall a fair agreement of energy- and particle-density profiles, components of the shear-stress tensor are more sensitive to details of the implementation. The highest sensitivity is exhibited by quantities influenced by properties of the medium at freeze-out. Conclusions: For some quantities, like the shear-stress tensor, agreement between fluid dynamics and transport theory extends into regions of Knudsen numbers and inverse Reynolds numbers where relativistic fluid dynamics is believed to fail. ...
PublisherAmerican Physical Society
Publication in research information system
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Related funder(s)Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Academy Project, AoF
Additional information about fundingThe authors thank C. M. Ko for reminding us of the escape mechanism. This work was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR within the framework of the LOEWE program launched by the State of Hesse, and by the Collaborative Research Center CRC-TR 211 “Strong-interaction matter under extreme conditions” funded by DFG. Numerical computations have been performed at the Center for Scientific Computing (CSC) at Frankfurt. H.N. was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 655285 and by the Academy of Finland, Project No. 297058. D.H.R. was partially supported by High-end Foreign Experts Project No. GDW20167100136 of the State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs of China. He greatly acknowledges the warm hospitality of the Department of Physics of the University of Jyväskylä, where part of this work was done. ...
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