Role of lignin and sodium carbonate on the swelling behavior of black liquor droplets during combustion
Chen, C., Pakkanen, H., & Alén, R. (2018). Role of lignin and sodium carbonate on the swelling behavior of black liquor droplets during combustion. Holzforschung, 72 (3), 179-185. doi:10.1515/hf-2017-0092
© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
A partial removal of lignin from black liquor (BL) by carbonation and lignin precipitation was studied. In lignin-lean BL droplets during combustion in a laboratory furnace at 800°C in stagnant air, the maximum swelling was decreased. This observation was interpreted as showing that the lignin content decrement is due mainly to removal of higher molar mass (HMM) lignin and that the Na2CO3 content of the BL is increased. Stepwise precipitation experiments with industrial softwood and hardwood kraft BLs by carbonation (resulting in pH decrement from 13 to 9) indicated that a fraction of HMM lignin (MM >10 kDa) with a higher amount of carbohydrates precipitated more prominently and earlier than the fraction with lower molar mass (LMM) lignin (MM <10 kDa) containing less amounts of carbohydrates. Separate experiments with a 50/50 (by wt) mixture of different lignin fractions (1–5, 5–10 and >10 kDa) and BL-originated aliphatic carboxylic acids were performed and found that the mixture of medium MM fraction (MM 5–10 kDa) swelled more than the other lignin fractions. The addition of Na2CO3 to BL also reduced the maximum swelling of a BL droplet. ...