Poverty and Tax Exemptions in Mid-Nineteenth Century Finland
Voutilainen, M. (2017). Poverty and Tax Exemptions in Mid-Nineteenth Century Finland. Journal of Finnish Studies, 20(1), 67-96.
Published inJournal of Finnish Studies
© Journal of Finnish Studies, 2017. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
The topic of this article is the nature and social character of Finnish rural poverty during the early stages of industrialization. Specifically, I analyze households exempted from two separate taxes in order to locate and study the rural poor. Contrary to several previous considerations deeming taxation sources unreliable in poverty studies, it is shown that under controlled settings tax exemption information does display promising features. These include a high exemption percentage of households without adult male members, small average household size of the tax exempted and a clear concentration of the exemptions on the lower rural social classes. My findings also highlight the fact that conclusions on the usability of the exemption information depend heavily on the selection of the tax studied. Taxes levied at individual level were not necessarily dependent on the households' economic status, and similarly household level taxes may have been independent of the inhabitants' social and economic conditions. On average, the exemption rates are in line with several accounts from pre-industrial Western Europe. ...
PublisherSam Houston State University
Publication in research information system
MetadataShow full item record
Showing items with similar title or keywords.
Frigren, Pirita; Hemminki, Tiina; Nummela, Ilkka (Sam Houston State University, 2017)The nineteenth century in Finland was characterized by significant societal changes. Since 1809 a Grand Duchy of imperial Russia, Finland began to transform from an early modern society of estates to a modern civic ...
Enterprising People and the Threat of Impoverishment and Social Loss : The Consequences of Urban Business Failure in Finland at the End of the 1870s Turunen, Riina (Sam Houston State University, 2017)This article contemplates the individual level socioeconomic consequences of bankruptcy by studying market-oriented, self-employed people in Jyvaskyla, a small town in central Finland. The article asks if poverty and ...
Bengtsson, Erik; Missiaia, Anna; Nummela, Ilkka; Olsson, Mats (Scandinavian Society for Economic and Social History and Historical Geography, 2019)We present the first comprehensive, long-run estimates of Finnish wealth and its distribution from 1750 to 1900. Using wealth data from 17,279 probate inventories, we show that Finland was very unequal between 1750 and ...
Debating "the ABCs of parliamentary life" : the learning of parliamentary rules and practices in the late nineteenth-century Finnish Diet and the early Eduskunta Pekonen, Onni (University of Jyväskylä, 2014)
Paloheimo, Maare (University of Jyväskylä, 2012)