Secular rise in economically valuable personality traits
Jokela, M., Pekkarinen, T., Sarvimäki, M., Terviö, M., & Uusitalo, R. (2017). Secular rise in economically valuable personality traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(25), 6527-6532. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1609994114
© the Authors, 2017. This is an open access article published by National Academy of Sciences.
Although trends in many physical characteristics and cognitive capabilities of modern humans are well-documented, less is known about how personality traits have evolved over time. We analyze data from a standardized personality test administered to 79% of Finnish men born between 1962 and 1976 (n = 419,523) and find steady increases in personality traits that predict higher income in later life. The magnitudes of these trends are similar to the simultaneous increase in cognitive abilities, at 0.2–0.6 SD during the 15-y window. When anchored to earnings, the change in personality traits amounts to a 12% increase. Both personality and cognitive ability have consistent associations with family background, but the trends are similar across groups defined by parental income, parental education, number of siblings, and rural/ urban status. Nevertheless, much of the trends in test scores can be attributed to changes in the family background composition, namely 33% for personality and 64% for cognitive ability. These composition effects are mostly due to improvements in parents’ education. We conclude that there is a “Flynn effect” for personality that mirrors the original Flynn effect for cognitive ability in magnitude and practical significance but is less driven by compositional changes in family background. ...
PublisherNational Academy of Sciences
Publication in research information system
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- Kauppakorkeakoulu 
Related funder(s)Academy of Finland
Funding program(s)Strategic research programmes, AoF
Additional information about fundingS. We thank Kai Nyman and Kari Laitinen at the FDF for help in assisting with access to data and interpreting test scores and Annaliina Kotilainen for excellent research assistance. T.P., M.S., and R.U. were supported by Strategic Research Council at the Academy of Finland Grants 293445 and 303686. M.T. was supported by European Research Council Grant ERC-240970.
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