EMG and force production of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in isometric plantarflexion and the push-off phase of walking
Peter, A., Hegyi, A., Stenroth, L., Finni Juutinen, T., & Cronin, N. (2015). EMG and force production of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in isometric plantarflexion and the push-off phase of walking. Journal of Biomechanics, 48 (12), 3413-3419. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.05.033
Published inJournal of Biomechanics
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This is a final draft version of an article whose final and definitive form has been published by Elsevier. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
Large forces are generated under the big toe in the push-off phase of walking. The largest flexor muscle of the big toe is the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), which likely contributes substantially to these forces. This study examined FHL function at different levels of isometric plantarflexion torque and in the push-off phase at different speeds of walking. FHL and calf muscle activity were measured with surface EMG and plantar pressure was recorded with pressure insoles. FHL activity was compared to the activity of the calf muscles. Force and impulse values were calculated under the big toe, and were compared to the entire pressed area of the insole to determine the relative contribution of big toe flexion forces to the ground reaction force. FHL activity increased with increasing plantarflexion torque level (F=2.8, P=0.024) and with increasing walking speed (F=11.608, P<0.001). No differences were observed in the relative contribution of the force under the big toe to the entire sole between different plantarflexion torque levels (F=0.836, P=0.529). On the contrary, in the push-off phase of walking, peak force under the big toe increased at a higher rate than force under the other areas of the plantar surface (F=3.801, P=0.018), implying a greater relative contribution to total force at faster speeds. Moreover, substantial differences were found between isometric plantarflexion and walking concerning FHL activity relative to that of the calf muscles, highlighting the task-dependant behaviour of FHL. ...
PublisherPergamon; American Society of Biomechanics
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