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dc.contributor.authorBöckerman, Petri
dc.contributor.authorBryson, Alex
dc.contributor.authorViinikainen, Jutta
dc.contributor.authorViikari, Jorma
dc.contributor.authorLehtimäki, Terho
dc.contributor.authorVuori, Erkki
dc.contributor.authorKeltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
dc.contributor.authorRaitakari, Olli
dc.contributor.authorPehkonen, Jaakko
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-13T07:32:38Z
dc.date.available2016-12-24T22:45:05Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationBöckerman, P., Bryson, A., Viinikainen, J., Viikari, J., Lehtimäki, T., Vuori, E., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Raitakari, O., & Pehkonen, J. (2016). The serum copper/zinc ratio in childhood and educational attainment : a population-based study. <i>Journal of Public Health</i>, <i>38</i>(4), 696-703. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdv187" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdv187</a>
dc.identifier.otherCONVID_25435989
dc.identifier.otherTUTKAID_68562
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/48334
dc.description.abstractBackground Micronutrients are potentially important determinants of adult outcomes such as educational attainment. Copper and zinc have known effects on several medical conditions and cognitive development. Elevated copper and depressed zinc is a common trace metal imbalance. Methods We estimate the correlation between the copper/zinc ratio (Cu/Zn) in childhood (year 1980) and educational attainment in adulthood (year 2010). We use the Young Finns Study (YFS) combined with the Finnish Linked Employer-Employee Data (FLEED). The regression models account for confounders such as other biomarkers and parental observables. Results We report a sizeable, negative correlation between Cu/Zn and educational attainment as measured by education in years, grades as well as the likelihood of completing university education. For example, a one standard deviation increase in Cu/Zn decreases the probability of university education by ∼4%. Conclusions The findings are consistent with a Cu/Zn effect influencing cognitive functioning early in life. Future research should explore more deeply the precise mechanisms by which Cu/Zn affects educational attainment.
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherOxford University Press; Faculty of Public Health
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Public Health
dc.subject.othercopper-zinc ratio
dc.subject.othereducational attainment
dc.subject.othergrade point average score
dc.titleThe serum copper/zinc ratio in childhood and educational attainment : a population-based study
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-201601121091
dc.contributor.laitosKauppakorkeakoulufi
dc.contributor.laitosSchool of Business and Economicsen
dc.contributor.oppiaineBasic or discovery scholarshipfi
dc.contributor.oppiaineTaloustiedefi
dc.contributor.oppiaineBasic or discovery scholarshipen
dc.contributor.oppiaineEconomicsen
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.date.updated2016-01-12T10:15:02Z
dc.type.coarjournal article
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.format.pagerange696-703
dc.relation.issn1741-3842
dc.relation.numberinseries4
dc.relation.volume38
dc.type.versionacceptedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© The Authors 2015. This is a final draft version of an article whose final and definitive form has been published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.relation.doi10.1093/pubmed/fdv187


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