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dc.contributor.authorLeicht, Katja
dc.contributor.authorJokela, Jukka
dc.contributor.authorSeppälä, Otto
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-03T10:53:44Z
dc.date.available2015-12-03T10:53:44Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.citationLeicht, K., Jokela, J., & Seppälä, O. (2013). An experimental heat wave changes immune defense and life history traits in a freshwater snail. <em>Ecology and Evolution</em>, 3 (15), 4861-4871. <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.874">doi:10.1002/ece3.874</a> Retrieved from <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.874/abstract">http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.874/abstract</a>
dc.identifier.otherTUTKAID_60295
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/47977
dc.description.abstractThe predicted increase in frequency and severity of heat waves due to climate change is expected to alter disease dynamics by reducing hosts’ ability to resist infections. This could take place via two different mechanisms: (1) through general reduction in hosts’ performance under harsh environmental conditions and/or (2) through altered resource allocation that reduces expression of defense traits in order to maintain other traits. We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring the effect of an experimental heat wave (25 vs. 15°C) on the constitutive level of immune defense (hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase [PO]-like activity, antibacterial activity of hemolymph), and life history traits (growth and number of oviposited eggs) of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We also manipulated the exposure time to high temperature (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 days). We found that if the exposure to high temperature lasted <1 week, immune function was not affected. However, when the exposure lasted longer than that, the level of snails’ immune function (hemocyte concentration and PO-like activity) was reduced. Snails’ growth and reproduction increased within the first week of exposure to high temperature. However, longer exposures did not lead to a further increase in cumulative reproductive output. Our results show that short experimental heat waves do not alter immune function but lead to plastic responses that increase snails’ growth and reproduction. Thus, although the relative expression of traits changes, short experimental heat waves do not impair snails’ defenses. Negative effects on performance get pronounced when the heat waves are prolonged suggesting that high performance cannot be maintained over long time periods. This ultimately reduces the levels of defense traits.
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwell
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEcology and Evolution
dc.relation.urihttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.874/abstract
dc.subject.otherGlobal warming
dc.subject.otherImmune function
dc.subject.otherLife history traits
dc.subject.otherLymnaea stagnalis
dc.subject.otherResource allocation
dc.titleAn experimental heat wave changes immune defense and life history traits in a freshwater snail
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-201512023891
dc.contributor.laitosBio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitosfi
dc.contributor.laitosThe Department of Biological and Environmental Scienceen
dc.contributor.oppiaineEkologia ja evoluutiobiologia
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.date.updated2015-12-02T10:15:13Z
dc.type.coarjournal article
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.format.pagerange4861-4871
dc.relation.issn2045-7758
dc.relation.volume3
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.rights.urlhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.relation.doi10.1002/ece3.874


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© 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use,
distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.