Hygro-elasto-plastic model for planar orthotropic material
Erkkilä, A., Leppänen, T., Hämäläinen, J., & Tuovinen, T. (2015). Hygro-elasto-plastic model for planar orthotropic material. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 62, 66-80. doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2015.02.001
Published inInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
An in-plane elasto-plastic material model and a hygroexpansivity-shrinkage model for paper and board are introduced in this paper. The input parameters for both models are fiber orientation anisotropy and dry solids content. These two models, based on experimental results, could be used in an analytical approach to estimate, for example, plastic strain and shrinkage in simple one-dimensional cases, but for studies of the combined and more complicated effects of hygro-elasto-plastic behavior, a numerical finite element model was constructed. The finite element approach also offered possibilities for studying different structural variations of an orthotropic sheet as well as buckling behavior and internal stress situations under local strain differences. A few examples are presented of the effect of the anisotropy and moisture streaks under stretching and drying conditions on strain differences and buckling. The internal stresses were studied through a case in which the drying of different layers occurred at different stages. Both the anisotropy and moisture streaks were capable of rendering the buckling of the sample visible. The permanency of these defects highly depends on several process stages and tension conditions of the sheet, as demonstrated in this paper. The application possibilities of the hygro-elasto-plastic model are diverse, including investigation into several phenomena and defects appearing in drying, converting and printing process conditions ...