Increased ventilation by fish leads to a higher risk of parasitism
Mikheev, V. N., Pasternak, A. F., Valtonen, T., & Taskinen, J. (2014). Increased ventilation by fish leads to a higher risk of parasitism. Parasites and Vectors, 7, Article 281. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-281
Published inParasites and Vectors
© 2014 Mikheev et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Background: Fish are common intermediate hosts of trematode cercariae and their gills can potentially serve as important sites of penetration by these larval stages. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that volume of ventilation flow across the gills contributes to acquisition of these parasites by fish. We manipulated the intensity of ventilation by using different oxygen concentrations. Methods: Juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss were individually exposed for 10 minutes to a standard dose of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum cercariae at three levels of oxygen concentration, 30, 60 and 90%. Ventilation amplitude (measured as a distance between left and right operculum), operculum beat rate, and the number of cercariae established in the eyes of fish were recorded. Results: Fish reacted to low oxygen concentration with wider expansion of opercula (but not with increasing beat rate), leading to an increase in ventilation volume. As expected, the intensity of infection increased with decreasing oxygen saturation — probably due to a higher exposure to cercariae caused by increased ventilation under low oxygen concentrations. The number of cercariae acquired by an individual fish was positively correlated with ventilation amplitude and with ventilation volume, but not with operculum beat rate. However, even though the infection rate increased under these circumstances, the proportion of larval trematodes successfully establishing in fish eyes decreased with increasing ventilation volume, suggesting that the high flow velocity, although increasing host exposure to cercarial parasites, may interfere with the ability of these parasit es to penetrate their hosts. There was no difference in the behaviour of trematode cercariae exposed to low and high oxygen concentrations. Conclusion: A reduction in oxygen saturation resulted in an increase in ventilation volume across the gills and in doing so an increase in the exposure of fish to cercariae. A significant correlation between ventilation volume and parasitism represents the first experimental evidence that this physiological mechanism generates variation in transmission of parasites to fish hosts. Other factors that modify ventilation flow, e.g. physiological or social stressors, are expected to produce similar effects on the t ransmission success of the parasites penetrating fish hosts using the gills. ...
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2014 Mikheev et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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