Interactive effects between diet and genotypes of host and pathogen define the severity of infection
Zhang, J., Friman, V.-P., Laakso, J., & Mappes, J. (2012). Interactive effects between diet and genotypes of host and pathogen define the severity of infection. Ecology and Evolution, 2 (9), 2347-2356. doi:10.1002/ece3.356 Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.356/full
Published inEcology and Evolution
DisciplineEkologia ja evoluutiobiologia
Host resistance and parasite virulence are influenced by multiple interacting factors in complex natural communities. Yet, these interactive effects are seldom studied concurrently, resulting in poor understanding of host-pathogen-environment dynamics. Here, we investigated how the level of opportunist pathogen virulence, strength of host immunity and the host condition manipulated via diet affect the survival of wood tiger moth Parasemia plantaginis (Arctidae). Larvae from “low cuticular melanin” and “high cuticular melanin” (considered as low and high pathogen resistance, respectively) selection lines were infected with moderately and highly virulent bacteria strains of Serratia marcescens, while simultaneously manipulating host diet (with or without antibacterial compounds). We measured host survival and food preference before and after infection to test whether the larvae “self-medicate” by choosing an anti-infection diet (Plantago major, i.e., plantain leaf) over lettuce (Lactuca sativa). “High melanin” larvae were more resistant than “low melanin” larvae to the less virulent strain that had slower growth and colonization rate compared with the more virulent strain. Cuticular melanin did not enhance survival when the larvae were infected with the highly virulent strain. Anti-infection diet enhanced survival of the “high melanin” but not the “low melanin” hosts. Survival was dependent on family origin even within the melanin selection lines. Despite the intrinsic preference for lettuce, no evidence of self-medication was found. These results demonstrate that the relative benefit of host cuticular melanin depends on both diet and pathogen virulence: plantain diet only boosted the immunity of already resistant “high melanin” hosts, and cuticular melanin increased host survival only when infected with moderately virulent pathogen. Moreover, there was considerable variation in host survival between families within both melanin lines suggesting genetic basis for resistance. These results indicate that although melanin is an important predictor of insect immunity, its effect on disease outcomes greatly depends on other interacting factors. ...
PublisherBlackwell Publishing Ltd.
MetadataShow full item record
Showing items with similar title or keywords.
Kaukoniitty, Minna (2014)Hyönteisiin lukeutuu monia merkittäviä tuholaisia, taudinvälittäjiä ja hyödyllisiä lajeja, minkä takia hyönteisten taudit, taudinaiheuttajat ja immuunipuolustus ovat ekologisesta, ekonomisesta ja lääketieteellisestä ...
Effects of environment and genotype on dispersal differ across departure, transfer and settlement in a butterfly metapopulation DiLeo, Michelle F.; Nonaka, Etsuko; Husby, Arild; Saastamoinen, Marjo (The Royal Society Publishing, 2022)Active dispersal is driven by extrinsic and intrinsic factors at the three stages of departure, transfer and settlement. Most empirical studies capture only one stage of this complex process, and knowledge of how much can ...
Insect immunity: oral exposure to a bacterial pathogen elicits free radical response and protects from a recurring infection Mikonranta, Lauri; Mappes, Johanna; Kaukoniitty, Minna; Freitak, Dalial (BioMed Central Ltd., 2014)Background: Previous exposure to a pathogen can help organisms cope with recurring infection. This is widely recognised in vertebrates, but increasing occasions are also being reported in invertebrates where this ...
Long-Term Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment: Effects on Survival, Immunocompetence and Reproduction Success of Parasemia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Dickel, Franziska; Freitak, Dalial; Mappes, Johanna (Oxford University Press; Entomological Society of America, 2016)Hundreds of insect species are nowadays reared under laboratory conditions. Rearing of insects always implicates the risk of diseases, among which microbial infections are the most frequent and difficult problems. Although ...
Protist predation can select for bacteria with lowered susceptibility to infection by lytic phages Örmälä, Anni-Maria; Ojala, Ville; Hiltunen, Teppo; Zhang, Ji; Bamford, Jaana; Laakso, Jouni (BioMed Central Ltd., 2015)Background: Consumer-resource interactions constitute one of the most common types of interspecific antagonistic interaction. In natural communities, complex species interactions are likely to affect the outcomes of ...