The importance of particulate organic matter to invertebrate communities of boreal woodland streams : implications for stream restoration
Allochthonous organic matter originating from streamside vegetation is of central importance in maintaining food webs and diverse life forms in small woodland streams. In this thesis I studied how the seasonal availability of particulate organic matter (POM) is reflected in the seasonality and community composition of stream macroinvertebrates. I also studied the breakdown rates of leaves from three deciduous tree species and their colonization by fungi and macroinvertebrates, as well as the distributional patterns of detritivores and their food resources in the streams of contrasting retentivity. The input of allochthonous detritus in stream Rutajoki, Central Finland, was highly pulsed, peaking in September-October. The standing stocks of benthic organic matter were among the lowest reported for woodland streams. Minimum biomasses and densities of total macroinvertebrates occurred in summer, and maximum in mid-winter. Seasonality was most distinct among shredders, with 40-fold higher biomasses in March than during the summer. The breakdown rates of alder and birch leaves were fast, while willow leaves were processed at a medium rate. Birch leaves contained the highest fungal biomasses while alder supported the highest invertebrate numbers. Invertebrate community composition was similar between the three leaf types, but differed distinctly from the surrounding benthos. The aggregation of detritivores to retentive stream patches was most pronounced in the channelized stream, while in the natural stream they showed only weak association with benthic leaves. Due to simplified habitat structure, channelized streams contained a group of indicator species, whereas shifts between restored and natural streams were more gradual. The poor retention capacity may severely limit the production of detritivorous invertebrates. The presence of various leaf species is one of the key elements in supporting vital populations of detritivores. ...
- Artikkeli I: Haapala, A., & Muotka, T. (1998). Seasonal dynamics of detritus and associsted macroinvertebrates in a channelized boreal stream. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 142(2), 171-189. DOI: 10.1127/archiv-hydrobiol/142/1998/171
- Artikkeli II: Haapala, A., Muotka, T., & Markkola, A. (2001). Breakdown and macroinvertebrate and fungal colonization of alder, birch, and willow leaves in a boreal woodland stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 20, 395-407. DOI: 10.2307/1468037
- Artikkeli III: Haapala, A., & Muotka, T. (2002). Stream macroinvertebrate communities in leaf bags vs. benthos: does leaf type matter?. Verhandlungen der internationalen Vereinigung der Limnologie, 28, 1804-1809. DOI: 10.1080/03680770.2001.11901938
- Artikkeli IV: Haapala, A., Laasonen, P., & Muotka, T. (2002). Distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates and leaf CPOM in relation to stream bed retentivity: implications to headwater stream restoration. Boreal Environment Research, 8(1). Full text
- Artikkeli V: Muotka, T., Paavola, R., Haapala, A., Novikmec, M., & Laasonen, P. (2002). Long-term recovery of stream habitat structure and benthic invertebrate communities from in-stream restoration. Biological Conservation, 105(2), 243-253. DOI: 10.1016/s0006-3207(01)00202-6
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Laasonen, Pekka (2000)The changes in stream benthic communities after restoration of channelized rivers was studied in northern headwater streams. More specifically, this thesis concentrates on the effects of restoration on short and long term ...
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