Menstrual cycle and hormonal contraception : associations between hormones, physical performance, and menstrual cycle -related symptoms
The author has not given permission to make the work publicly available electronically. Therefore the material can be read only at the archival workstation at Jyväskylä University Library (https://kirjasto.jyu.fi/en/workspaces/facilities).
This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for Your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.
Introduction. It has been reported that 42 % of exercising women feel that the menstrual cycle negatively affects their performance (Bruinvels et al. 2016). However, athletes must train and compete in each phase of the cycle and manage the possible symptoms associated to the hormonal fluctuation. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate whether the symptoms related to menstrual cycle and/or hormonal contraceptive cycle are associated with physical performance. Methods. The participants were recreationally active women aged 19-37. There were 13 subjects in hormonal contraceptive -group (HC-group) and 16 subjects with normal menstrual cycles in non-hormonal contraceptive group (NHC-group). The study used a cross-sectional research design. The participants completed four identical measurements during different phases of menstrual cycle (1. menstruation 2. follicular 3. ovulation 4. luteal) or hormonal contraceptive cycle (1. withdrawal bleeding 2. first active phase 3. second active phase 4. inactive phase). The measurements consisted of venous blood sample collections and physical performance tests, which included one repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the leg extensor muscles and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test by running. Also, the participants filled a menstrual diary throughout the study, in which they reported the symptoms. The statistical significance was set to p<0.05. Results. Sex hormone fluctuation was more significant among the NHC-group compared to HC-group. VO2max and number of symptoms did not differ between the groups. However, strength performance was statistically significantly higher in NHC-group: 1RM in all the phases and MVC in the third phase. In NHC-group, VO2max was statistically significantly higher during ovulation compared to luteal phase, and number of symptoms was statistically significantly higher in luteal compared to follicular phase. In HC-group the concentration of SHBG, T3 and cortisol were statistically significantly higher compared to NHC-group in all the measurement points. In addition, these hormones were found to correlate with physical performance and number of symptoms. After merging the groups as one, serotonin was found to be inversely associated with number of symptoms whereas serotonin and VO2max were positively associated when regarding the relative changes of the variables between phases 1 and 4. Conclusions. There were several associations found in this thesis. Yet, the relationship between the symptoms and physical performance remains uncertain and needs more investigation. ...
MetadataShow full item record
- Pro gradu -tutkielmat 
Showing items with similar title or keywords.
Influence of Menstrual Cycle or Hormonal Contraceptive Phase on Energy Intake and Metabolic Hormones : A Pilot Study Ihalainen, Johanna K.; Löfberg, Ida; Kotkajuuri, Anna; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Hackney, Anthony C.; Taipale-Mikkonen, Ritva S. (MDPI AG, 2021)Sex hormones are suggested to influence energy intake (EI) and metabolic hormones. This study investigated the influence of menstrual cycle (MC) and hormonal contraceptive (HC) cycle phases on EI, energy availability (EA), ...
Associations between menstrual cycle and hormonal contraception with satiety hormones and food intake Löfberg, Ida (2020)Introduction. The ovarian steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone are potentially capable of affecting dietary intake, which is supported by the vast evidence showing that food intake peaks during the luteal phase and ...
Associations of Sex Hormones and Hormonal Status With Arterial Stiffness in a Female Sample From Reproductive Years to Menopause Laakkonen, Eija K.; Karppinen, Jari E.; Lehti, Satu; Lee, Earric; Pesonen, Emilia; Juppi, Hanna-Kaarina; Kujala, Urho M.; Haapala, Eero A.; Aukee, Pauliina; Laukkanen, Jari A.; Ihalainen, Johanna K. (Frontiers Media SA, 2021)Objective: Loss of sex hormones has been suggested to underlie menopause-associated increment in cardiovascular risk. We investigated associations of sex hormones with arterial stiffness in 19–58-years-old women. We also ...
Changes in Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Performance, and Side Effects Across the Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Among Competitive Endurance Athletes Solli, Guro S.; Sandbakk, Silvana B.; Noordhof, Dionne A.; Ihalainen, Johanna K.; Sandbakk, Øyvind (Human Kinetics, 2020)Purpose: To investigate changes in self-reported physical fitness, performance, and side effects across the menstrual cycle (MC) phases among competitive endurance athletes and to describe their knowledge and communication ...
Self-Reported Restrictive Eating, Eating Disorders, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Injuries in Athletes Competing at Different Levels and Sports Ravi, Suvi; Ihalainen, Johanna K.; Taipale-Mikkonen, Ritva S.; Kujala, Urho M.; Waller, Benjamin; Mierlahti, Laura; Lehto, Johanna; Valtonen, Maarit (MDPI AG, 2021)The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported restrictive eating, current or past eating disorder, and menstrual dysfunction and their relationships with injuries. Furthermore, we aimed to ...