The effects of periodized resistance training on the neuromuscular performance, body composition and balance control among older and young adults
Julkaisu on tekijänoikeussäännösten alainen. Teosta voi lukea ja tulostaa henkilökohtaista käyttöä varten. Käyttö kaupallisiin tarkoituksiin on kielletty.
Strength, power and muscle mass decline with age. These declines lead to poorer balance and increased risk for falls. Intervention studies using a periodized resistance training (RT) among the older are limited, despite its widespread applications in fitness and sports among young adults. In addition, the effects of periodized RT on balance control remain to be investigated. This study sought to examine the effects of a short term periodized RT on the neuromuscular performance, body composition and balance control among older and young adults. A total of 31 untrained older (n=14, 8M & 6F; 69 ± 2 years) and young adult volunteers (n=17, 4M & 13F; 25 ± 3 years) completed 14-weeks of traditional periodized RT that included mesocycles targeted for hypertrophy, maximal strength, power and explosiveness. Measurements were conducted at two time-points: before and after RT. Neuromuscular performance tests included isometric unilateral plantar flexion (PF), isometric knee extension (KE), countermovement jump (CMJ) and one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press. Electromyography (EMG) data was collected on all neuromuscular performance tests. In addition, body composition was measured using dual energy absorptiometry (DXA). Finally, center of pressure (COP) disturbance was assessed using a force platform for static balance, and an antero-posteriorly translating perturbation device for dynamic balance. Neuromuscular performance results showed that both older and young adult groups increased KE maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) (both at p<0.001), 1RM leg press (both at p<0.001), and CMJ (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively). Only the young adults increased PF MVIC (p<0.001), PF rate of torque development (RTD) (p<0.05) and CMJ peak power (p<0.01), whereas both did not undergo a change in KE RTD. Body composition data revealed that only the older increased body mass (p<0.05), while only the young adults increased total lean mass (p<0.05) and total fat free mass (p<0.01). Static balance remained unchanged in both groups. Dynamic balance findings revealed that both older and young adult groups decreased COP disturbance during low intensity-anterior (Ant) (p<0.01) and averaged (Ave) posterior (Post) (p<0.05 & p<0.01) perturbations respectively. In addition, only the older decreased COP disturbance from high-Post perturbations (p<0.05), while only the young adults decreased from low Post (p<0.05), mid Ant (p<0.001) and Ave Ant (p<0.001) perturbations. Moreover, an age-related difference was revealed for CMJ height (p<0.05) and Ave Ant COP (p<0.05) data. Positive adaptations were incurred primarily through neural mechanisms among the older, while the young adults exhibited gains from both neural and muscular mechanisms. The current periodized RT program seem to be a viable design for optimizing adaptations in neuromuscular performance, body composition, and dynamic balance control on both older and young adults. ...
MetadataNäytä kaikki kuvailutiedot
- Pro gradu -tutkielmat 
Näytetään aineistoja, joilla on samankaltainen nimeke tai asiasanat.
Neuromuscular function and balance control in young and elderly subjects : effects of explosive strength training Piirainen, Jarmo (University of Jyväskylä, 2014)
Different-day and same-session combined strength and endurance training : adaptations in neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory performance, body composition, metabolic health and wellbeing in men and women Eklund, Daniela (University of Jyväskylä, 2017)This thesis investigated 1) acute neuromuscular and hormonal responses to combined strength and endurance loadings with different orders and their long-term adaptations (women), 2) adaptations in neuromuscular, hormonal, ...
Acute neuromuscular and hormonal responses and long-term adaptations to hypertrophic resistance training : with special reference to constant versus variable resistance Walker, Simon (University of Jyväskylä, 2012)
Effects of combined different day endurance and strength training on cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular performance in untrained men and women Vidal, Felix (2014)Concurrent endurance (E) and strength has caught the attention of many researchers due to both leads to different adaptations, either cardiorespiratory or neuromuscular. It is well known that combined strength and endurance ...
Exercise intervention protocol in children and young adults with cerebral palsy : the effects of strength, flexibility and gait training on physical performance, neuromuscular mechanisms and cardiometabolic risk factors (EXECP) Valadão, Pedro; Piitulainen, Harri; Haapala, Eero A.; Parviainen, Tiina; Avela, Janne; Finni, Taija (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021)Background Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have problems in everyday tasks such as walking and climbing stairs due to a combination of neuromuscular impairments such as spasticity, muscle weakness, reduced joint ...