Transitions to Sustainable Livelihoods to Reduce Threats to Biodiversity in North Sulawesi, Indonesia: Lessons From the Behaviour Change and Sustainable Transition Research Traditions
Hilser, H. (2018). Transitions to Sustainable Livelihoods to Reduce Threats to Biodiversity in North Sulawesi, Indonesia: Lessons From the Behaviour Change and Sustainable Transition Research Traditions. 5th European Congress of Conservation Biology. doi: 10.17011/conference/eccb2018/107820
© the Authors, 2018
Selamatkan Yaki (SY: Indonesian for “Save the macaques”) is an education, research and conservation programme focused on protecting the Critically Endangered Sulawesi crested black macaque (Macaca nigra) and its native habitat of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to habitat loss and hunting (primarily supplying an elitist, non-subsistence market), these endemic primates have experienced population declines of over 80% in the past 40 years. SY aims to protect the remaining population of macaques and the rich biodiversity of North Sulawesi through a collaborative, multi-stakeholder conservation strategy, based on a Species Action Plan for M. nigra. A multitude of approaches to the conservation objectives comprise extensive demographic, attitudinal and ecological monitoring, an education and awareness raising strategy, protected area management and ecotourism. A focus on social diffusion is applied via the “two-step approach” – empowering local role models ranging from religious leaders, youth representatives and celebrities to spread the conservation message and assist in removing barriers to effective behaviour change. Long-term cooperative efforts aim to reduce biodiversity pressures with development of a sustainable livelihood strategy. Sustainable, or alternative livelihood projects (ALPs) have long been used either as standalone projects or integrated within broader community development programmes. ALPs aim to reduce the prevalence of activities deemed to be environmentally detrimental by substituting them with lower impact livelihood practices that provide at least equivalent benefits to increase income and wellbeing of rural communities. Despite numerous reviews reporting lessons learned in the formation of ALPs, a paucity of evidence exists supporting the effectiveness of projects in meeting biodiversity conservation objectives. Proposed interventions are often “standard issue” and may not talk to the specific needs, aspirations, natural resources and capacities of the target community, or fit within current policy frameworks. This can leave communities feeling “pushed” towards change, maybe by criminalisation of previous income-generating activities, rather than “pulled” by the opportunity for change, diversification and economic growth. Such transitions should be part of a systems approach, appreciating the complexity of both structural and individualistic factors, maintaining sensitivity to communities’ needs and continually monitoring key variables for change. An early-stage case study from Indonesia is presented, with discussion opened by considering emergent lessons from behaviour change and sustainable transition approaches, and how these can be integrated into models of sustainable livelihoods. Questions pivot around the socio-cultural and political barriers to change, social practices as a potential lens for approaching sustainable livelihoods and the normative opportunities for fostering new ways of sustainable living. ...
PublisherOpen Science Centre, University of Jyväskylä
ConferenceECCB2018: 5th European Congress of Conservation Biology. 12th - 15th of June 2018, Jyväskylä, Finland
MetadataShow full item record
- ECCB 2018 
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