Supplementary data for: Improved camouflage through ontogenetic colour change confers reduced detection risk in shore crabs
Nokelainen et al. 2019. Supplementary data for: Improved camouflage through ontogenetic colour change confers reduced detection risk in shore crabs. - University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved from http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu-201901071081
© Ossi Nokelainen, Ruth Maynes, Sara Mynott, Natasha Price, Martin Stevens and University of Exeter and University of Jyväskylä
Many animals change appearance with age but the reasons why are rarely tested. Common shore crabs (Carcinus maenas), for example, are known for their ability to change colour over time. Young crabs show remarkable variation in coloration and it has been suggested that their variable appearance may help them to hide from predators in the habitats they use. However, as crabs grow they become more mobile and adult crabs, in contrast, are known to possess a more uniform coloration. This creates a problem: how to remain hidden in habitats that are variable and very different in appearance? To answer this, we first reared young shore crabs of two shades, pale or dark, on two background types resembling different habitats for 10 weeks. We predicted that crabs would adopt a coloration that would improve their match to the background, but instead they all developed a dark green or brown appearance. Next, we undertook an experiment at the Natural History Museum London during the Colour and Vision exhibition, where visitors searched for crabs representing natural colour variation from different habitats. Remarkably, crabs were not hardest to find against their original habitat, but instead the dark green or ‘mudflat crabs’ were hardest to detect against all backgrounds. These findings suggest that shore crabs change into similar colour with age, which appears to be a good general solution to match several habitat types and therefore to hide from predators. We conclude that the evolution of camouflage can be better understood by recognizing that the optimal appearance to hide may change over the lifespan of many animals. ...
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Improved camouflage through ontogenetic colour change confers reduced detection risk in shore crabs Nokelainen, Ossi; Maynes, Ruth; Mynott, Sara; Price, Natasha; Stevens, Martin (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2019)1. Animals from many taxa, from snakes and crabs to caterpillars and lobsters, change appearance with age, but the reasons why this occurs are rarely tested. 2. We show the importance that ontogenetic changes in coloration ...
Supplementary data to: Genetic colour variation visible for predators and conspecifics is concealed from humans in a polymorphic moth Kirvesoja, Jimi; Nokelainen, Ossi; Suisto, Kaisa; Mappes, Johanna; Galarza Pavia, JuanThe definition of colour polymorphism is intuitive: genetic variants express discretely-coloured phenotypes. This classification is however elusive as humans form subjective categories or ignore differences that cannot be ...
Nokelainen, Ossi; Brito, José Carlos; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Valkonen, Janne K.; Boratyński, Zbyszek (University of Jyväskylä, Open Science Centre. firstname.lastname@example.org, 2020)
An aposematic colour-polymorphic moth seen through the eyes of conspecifics and predators : sensitivity and colour discrimination in a tiger moth Henze, Miriam J.; Lind, Olle; Mappes, Johanna; Rojas Zuluaga, Bibiana; Kelber, Almut (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2018)Although predation is commonly thought to exert the strongest selective pressure on coloration in aposematic species, sexual selection may also influence coloration. Specifically, polymorphism in aposematic species cannot ...
Troscianko, Jolyon; Nokelainen, Ossi; Skelhorn, John; Stevens, Martin (Nature Publishing Group, 2021)Understanding what maintains the broad spectrum of variation in animal phenotypes and how this influences survival is a key question in biology. Frequency dependent selection – where predators temporarily focus on one morph ...