Dietary acid load and acid-base balance in exercise and health from adolescence to late adulthood
Published inStudies in sport, physical education and health
This thesis investigated whether dietary acid load has either short-term (4 to 7 days) or prolonged (12 weeks) effects on acid-base status at rest and during submaximal and maximal aerobic exercise; whether the effects of dietary acid load on acid-base status differ between adolescents, young adults and the elderly, and between men and women; and whether the changes in acid-base balance have a further effect on aerobic exercise performance. These questions were addressed in three different study settings in healthy and recreationally active men and women. In studies 1 and 2, which followed a crossover study design, participants were assigned in randomized order to follow a diet with a low or high acid load for 4 or 7 days. Study 3 was a 12-week longitudinal study in which participants were divided into two groups of lower and higher acid intake. Nine 18- to 30-year-old men participated in study 1. In study 2, 93 men and women were recruited from three age groups: 12 to 15 years, 25 to 35 years and 60 to 75 years. Forty-nine men and women aged 20 to 50 years participated in study 3. The main finding was that dietary acid load has acute and prolonged effects on blood and urine acid-base status and may also have effects on exercise performance. In young and elderly women, in particular, blood was more acidic at rest and during submaximal cycling after a 7-day high compared to low acid intake. In young women, maximal cardiorespiratory measures were lower and time to exhaustion shorter after high compared to low acid intake. During exercise, better renal function may be associated with higher bicarbonate ion availability in blood, which can diminish exercise-induced acidosis and delay fatigue. Lower kidney function in the elderly compared to younger participants, and in women compared to men may explain why the diet-induced changes in blood acid-base status were greater in the elderly participants and in women compared to younger participants and men. Moreover, even slightly acidogenic diets combined with regular training may be accompanied with increased acid load to the body and start to impair kidney function. These results emphasize the importance of an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables as a part of a healthy diet and a physically active lifestyle across the lifespan. ...
PublisherUniversity of Jyväskylä
- Artikkeli I: Hietavala, E-M., Puurtinen, R., Kainulainen, H. & Mero, A.A. 2012. Lowprotein vegetarian diet does not have a short-term effect on blood acidbase status but raises oxygen consumption during submaximal cycling. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 9, 50. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-50.
- Artikkeli II: Hietavala, E-M., Stout, J.R., Hulmi, J.J., Suominen, H., Pitkänen, H., Puurtinen, R., Selänne, H., Kainulainen, H. & Mero, A.A. 2015. Effect of diet composition on acid–base balance in adolescents, young adults and elderly at rest and during exercise. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (3), 399–404. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.245.
- Artikkeli III: Hietavala, E-M., Stout, J.R., Frassetto, L.A., Puurtinen, R., Pitkänen, H., Selänne, H., Suominen, H. & Mero, A.A. 2017. Dietary acid load and renal function have varying effects on blood acid-base status and exercise performance across age and sex. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 42 (12), 1330–1340. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0279.
- Artikkeli IV: Hietavala, E-M., Ihalainen, J.K., Frassetto, L.A., Schumann, M., Eklund, D., Häkkinen, K. & Mero, A.A. 2018. Effects of 12-week low or moderate dietary acid intake on acid–base status and kidney function at rest and during submaximal cycling. Nutrients 10 (3), 323. DOI: 10.3390/nu10030323.
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Effects of 12-Week Low or Moderate Dietary Acid Intake on Acid–Base Status and Kidney Function at Rest and during Submaximal Cycling Hietavala, Enni-Maria; Ihalainen, Johanna; Frassetto, Lynda A.; Schumann, Moritz; Eklund, Daniela; Pitkänen, Hannu; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti (MDPI AG, 2018)Prolonged effects of dietary acid intake on acid–base status and kidney function have not yet been studied in an intervention study in healthy subjects. Dietary acid load can be estimated by calculating the potential renal ...
Dietary acid load and renal function have varying effects on blood acid-base status and exercise performance across age and gender Hietavala, Enni-Maria; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Frassetto, Lynda A.; Puurtinen, Risto; Pitkänen, Hannu; Selänne, Harri; Suominen, Harri; Mero, Antti (National Research Council Canada, 2017)Diet composition influences acid-base status of the body. This may become more relevant as renal functional capacity declines with aging. We examined the effects of low (LD) versus high dietary acid load (HD) on blood ...
Low-protein vegetarian diet does not have a short-term effect on blood acid¿base status but raises oxygen consumption during submaximal cycling Hietavala, Enni-Maria; Puurtinen, Risto; Kainulainen, Heikki; Mero, Antti A. (BioMed Central (BMC), 2012)Background. Acid–base balance refers to the equilibrium between acids and bases in the human body. Nutrition may affect acid–base balance and further physical performance. With the help of PRAL (potential renal acid ...
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