New insights on the role of ecology and life-history in social evolution
DisciplineEkologia ja evoluutiobiologia
Biological altruism, deﬁned as a behaviour that beneﬁts others at an apparent cost to the focal individual, is found abundantly across diﬀerent levels of biological organization. While kin selection has been useful for explaining both cooperation and conﬂict in specialized cooperative societies, more theoretical work has to be done to develop models for realistic ecological and life-history contexts. This thesis aims to ﬁll this gap by providing several new insights on the role of ecology and life-history in various social systems. Firstly, I propose a model that incorporates realistic ecological mechanisms of population regulation and study how diﬀerent population regulation mechanisms aﬀect the evolution of helping behaviour. I show that nest-site limitation strongly favours evolution of helping behaviour even if the helpers are relatively ineﬃcient. I also ﬁnd that interactions between density dependent mechanisms and life-history traits aﬀect the evolution of social behaviour. Secondly, I consider a resource allocation model for eusocial insect colonies that incorporates the dynamics of colony growth and the conﬂict between the queen and the workers over the sex ratio. I show that conﬂict over sex allocation gives rise to a suboptimal pattern of colony growth, while the queen wins the sex allocation conﬂict. Thirdly, I study optimal reproductive tactics in facultatively cooperative wasps. I show that co-foundress nests and costly helping can evolve even with a low average relatedness between co-foundresses, but only during the initial stages of the nesting cycle. Costly helping during the reproductive phase can only evolve if the relatedness between co-foundresses is high. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates the importance of considering ecological and life-history aspects in the study of social interactions from early stages of helping behaviour to resolving conﬂicts in eusocial insect colonies. ...
PublisherUniversity of Jyväskylä
aitososiaalisuus sukulaisvalinta eusociality cooperative breeding social evolution evolutionary model dynamic optimization game theory life-history theory evoluutio luonnonvalinta eläinten käyttäytyminen lisääntyminen yhteistyö altruismi yhteiskuntahyönteiset ampiaiset pistiäiset lisääntymiskäyttäytyminen matemaattiset mallit peliteoria optimointi
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