The role of salmonid fishes in conservation of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera)
The abundance of freshwater pearl mussels (Margaritifera margaritifera) has declined widely during the past century, and new conservation initiatives are needed. This thesis focused on the relationship between M. margaritifera and its salmonid host required for reproduction of this species. First, by exposing fish experimentally to glochidium larvae of M. margaritifera, different M. margaritifera populations were shown to demonstrate strong differences in their ability to parasitize different salmonid species. Atlantic salmon was clearly a better host for mussels in large river channels, whereas in small headwater tributaries brown trout was the best, or the only suitable, host. These findings provide a previously unrecognised explanation for the collapse and the lack of recruitment especially of the salmon-specific M. margaritifera populations; a high proportion of large salmon rivers were dammed for hydropower production in the 1960s, which prevented the migration of salmon and thus left M. margaritifera without the appropriate host in these rivers. Furthermore, an invasive salmonid, brook trout, was widely introduced to small tributaries above the dams in the past, but in this study was shown to be an unsuitable host for M. margaritifera. Thus, and due to the tendency of brook trout to replace native brown trout, the spread of brook trout is an additional threat to M. margaritifera. An indication of local adaptation of M. margaritifera, i.e. higher infectivity in sympatric salmonid host strain than in allopatric populations of the same species, was also detected. Finally, a new, non- destructive approach to search for M. margaritifera populations, involving electrofishing and quick visual examination of the gills of captured salmonids, revealed the occurrence of 3 previously unknown populations. The results of this thesis highlight the importance of taking into account the roles of salmonid fish in future efforts to search, protect and restore freshwater pearl mussel populations. ...
PublisherUniversity of Jyväskylä
- Article I: Salonen J.K., Luhta P.-L., Moilanen E., Oulasvirta P., Turunen J. & Taskinen J. 2016. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) differ in their suitability as a host for the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) in northern Fennoscandian rivers. Submitted manuscript.
- Article II: Taskinen J. & Salonen J.K. 2016. Origin matters: freshwater pearl mussels show adaptation to sympatric salmonid host strains. Manuscript.
- Article III:Salonen J.K., Marjomäki T.J. & Taskinen J. 2016. An alien fish threatens an endangered parasitic bivalve: the relationship between brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) in northern Europe. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2614
- Article IV: Salonen J.K. & Taskinen J. 2016. Electrofishing as a new method to search for unknown populations of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems . In press.
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Relationship between the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera, its salmonid host and co-infectants Chowdhury, M. Motiur R. (Jyväskylän yliopisto, 2018)The relationship between the freshwater pearl mussel (hereafter FPM), Margaritifera margaritifera, and its salmonid host — pivotal for the conservation of this endangered bivalve — is characterized by a long parasitic ...
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) differ in their suitability as hosts for the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) in northern Fennoscandian rivers Salonen, Jouni; Luhta, Pirkko-Liisa; Moilanen, Eero; Oulasvirta, Panu; Turunen, Jarno; Taskinen, Jouni (Blackwell Scientific, 2017)1. European populations of the freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera) have widely collapsed, and despite many types of conservation actions the number of successful restoration trials has remained ...
Interaction between the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera, the duck mussel Anodonta anatina and the fish host (Salmo) : acquired and cross-immunity Chowdhury, Motiur; Salonen, Jouni; Marjomäki, Timo; Taskinen, Jouni (Kluwer Academic Publishers; Springer Netherlands, 2018)The common duck mussel Anodonta anatina can live in sympatry with—and use the same host, brown trout (Salmo trutta)—as the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Since the glochidia release of A. ...
Immunization of trout (Salmo trutta) against freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) by duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) glochidia Chowdhury, Motiur (2013)Freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera is endangered throughout its range of distribution in Europe. In some rivers M. margaritifera may co-occur with the duck mussel Anodonta anatina. Brown trout Salmo trutta ...
Effect of primary dietary sources and environmental variables on the condition of freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) populations Nykänen, Sabrina (2021)Earlier studies have suggested effect of land use on freshwater pearl mussel (FPM) via the detrimental impact of siltation on juvenile mussels, but little is known about its effects through the changes in food quality. ...