Fyysinen aktiivisuus, harrastustoiminta ja liikkumiskyky iäkkäiden ihmisten psyykkisen hyvinvoinnin ennustajina : 65-84-vuotiaiden jyväskyläläisten 8-vuotisseuruututkimus
Published inStudies in sport, physical education and health
DisciplineGerontologia ja kansanterveys
Päivi Lampinen selvitti fyysisen aktiivisuuden, harrastustoiminnan ja liikkumiskyvyn yhteyksiä 65–84-vuotiaiden jyväskyläläisten kotona asuvien miesten ja naisten psyykkiseen hyvinvointiin kahdeksan vuoden seuruututkimuksen aikana. Lisäksi hän tutki näiden tekijöiden ja niiden välisten yhteyksien taustalla olevia tekijöitä, kuten kroonisia sairauksia, päivittäistä toimintakykyä ja sosiodemografisia tekijöitä.The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the roles of activity and mobility status as associates and predictors of mental well-being among older adults over an 8-year period. In addition, the aim was to explore the individual-related factors underlying the associations between physical and leisure activity, mobility status and mental well-being.As part of the Evergreen project, two randomly selected samples each containing 800 community-dwelling residents of the city of Jyväskylä, central Finland, born in 1904-13 and 1914-23 were drawn from the local population register. The data were collected by home interviews in 1988 and 1996. About 80% (n=1224) of the target populations participated at baseline. The follow-up interview was conducted for 663 persons, which was approximately 90% of those eligible. Means of depressive symptoms and self-esteem scores in 1988 and 1996 in the three different physical activity and the two lifelong physical exercise groups were examined using the one-way ANOVA test (I, II). Logistic regression analysis was used to predict depressive symptoms among the survivors in the three physical activity groups (I) and also, to evaluate how the mobility-physical activity groups would predict depressive symptoms among those survivors who had no depressive symptoms at baseline (III). Path analysis model was used to explore the factors and predictors of mental well-being (IV).The intensity of physical and leisure activity and mobility status decreased among men and women during the 8-year period. Depressive symptoms increased, self-esteem scores remained and mental well-being slightly decreased over 8 years. Physically active men and women and lifelong exercisers reported fewer depressive symptoms than their sedentary counterparts. The most active women had higher self-esteem scores than the more sedentary ones. Subjects who had reduced their physical activity after baseline reported more depressive symptoms than those who had remained active or increased their physical activity. Those who were mobility-disabled and had a sedentary life-style had a higher risk for depressive symptoms at follow-up.The factors underlying mental well-being and the paths from examined variables to mental well-being showed some variation between the baseline and follow-up model. At baseline, the most powerful determinants of mental well-being were better mobility status, leisure activity and a low number of chronic illnesses. Better mobility status and younger age predicted mental well-being at follow-up. Physical activity was indirectly associated with and predicted mental well-being through mobility status and leisure activity. Baseline mental well-being had a strong effect on 8-year follow-up mental well-being. Activity may provide a global indicator of health and functioning through which the maintenance of health and functional performance is well perceived and reflected in everyday lives. Interventions aimed at preventing inactivity, mobility impairments and poor health would support the efforts of maintaining and improving mental well-being in elderly population. ...
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