A Plastic Biosynthetic Pathway for the Production of Structurally Distinct Microbial Sunscreens
Arsın, S., Delbaje, E., Jokela, J., Wahlsten, M., Farrar, Z. M., Permi, P., & Fewer, D. (2023). A Plastic Biosynthetic Pathway for the Production of Structurally Distinct Microbial Sunscreens. ACS Chemical Biology, Early online. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.3c00112
Published inACS Chemical Biology
© 2023 the Authors
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are small, colorless, and water-soluble secondary metabolites. They have high molar extinction coefficients and a unique UV radiation absorption mechanism that make them effective sunscreens. Here we report the discovery of two structurally distinct MAAs from the lichen symbiont strain Nostoc sp. UHCC 0926. We identified these MAAs as aplysiapalythine E (C23H38N2O15) and tricore B (C34H53N4O15) using a combination of high-resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HR-LCMS) analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We obtained a 8.3 Mb complete genome sequence of Nostoc sp. UHCC 0926 to gain insights into the genetic basis for the biosynthesis of these two structural distinct MAAs. We identified MAA biosynthetic genes encoded in three separate locations of the genome. The organization of biosynthetic enzymes in Nostoc sp. UHCC 0926 necessitates a branched biosynthetic pathway to produce two structurally distinct MAAs. We detected the presence of such discontiguous MAA biosynthetic gene clusters in 12% of the publicly available complete cyanobacterial genomes. Bioinformatic analysis of public MAA biosynthetic gene clusters suggests that they are subject to rapid evolutionary processes resulting in highly plastic biosynthetic pathways that are responsible for the chemical diversity in this family of microbial sunscreens. ...
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
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Additional information about fundingThis project has been funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation (18OC0034838) granted to D.F. S.A is funded by the University of Helsinki, Microbiology and Biotechnology Doctoral Programme, E.D. received a doctoral fellowship from the Brazilian Federal Agency for the Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES, Finance code 001) and a PRINT Scholarship from CAPES (88887.572010/2020-00).
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