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dc.contributor.authorSaner, Christoph
dc.contributor.authorSenior, Alistair M.
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Hanyue
dc.contributor.authorEloranta, Aino-Maija
dc.contributor.authorMagnussen, Costan G.
dc.contributor.authorSabin, Matthew A.
dc.contributor.authorJuonala, Markus
dc.contributor.authorJanner, Marco
dc.contributor.authorBurgner, David P.
dc.contributor.authorSchwab, Ursula
dc.contributor.authorHaapala, Eero A.
dc.contributor.authorHeitmann, Berit L.
dc.contributor.authorSimpson, Stephen J.
dc.contributor.authorRaubenheimer, David
dc.contributor.authorLakka, Timo A.
dc.date.accessioned2023-03-13T08:02:17Z
dc.date.available2023-03-13T08:02:17Z
dc.date.issued2023
dc.identifier.citationSaner, C., Senior, A. M., Zhang, H., Eloranta, A.-M., Magnussen, C. G., Sabin, M. A., Juonala, M., Janner, M., Burgner, D. P., Schwab, U., Haapala, E. A., Heitmann, B. L., Simpson, S. J., Raubenheimer, D., & Lakka, T. A. (2023). Evidence for protein leverage in a general population sample of children and adolescents. <i>European Journal of Clinical Nutrition</i>, <i>77</i>(6), 652-659. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-023-01276-w" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-023-01276-w</a>
dc.identifier.otherCONVID_177307722
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/85971
dc.description.abstractBackground/objectives: The strong regulation of protein intake can lead to overconsumption of total energy on diets with a low proportion of energy from protein, a process referred to as protein leverage. The protein leverage hypothesis posits that protein leverage explains variation in energy intake and potentially obesity in ecological settings. Here, we tested for protein leverage and the protein leverage hypothesis in children and adolescents. Subjects/methods: A population sample of children, mean (SD) age 7.6 (0.4) years (n = 422), followed up at age 9.8 (0.4) years (n = 387) and at age 15.8 (0.4) years (n = 229), participating for the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study. Exposures: 4-day food records-related proportional energy intake of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Outcomes: energy intake, body mass index (BMI) z-score and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-related energy expenditure. Results: Proportional energy intake of proteins was inversely associated with energy intake following power functions at all 3 ages (mean [95%CI] strength of leverage of L = -0.36 [-0.47 to -0.25]; L = -0.26 [-0.37 to -0.15]; L = -0.25 [-0.38 to -0.13]; all P < 0.001). Mixture analysis indicated that variance in energy intake was associated primarily with the proportional intake of energy from proteins, not with either fats or carbohydrates. At all 3 ages, energy intake was not associated with BMI z-score but positively associated with energy expenditure (all P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence consistent with protein leverage in a population sample of children and adolescents. Increased energy intake on diets with lower protein content was counterbalanced by increased energy expenditure and therefore did not translate into increased adiposity.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherNature Publishing Group
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0
dc.titleEvidence for protein leverage in a general population sample of children and adolescents
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-202303132126
dc.contributor.laitosLiikuntatieteellinen tiedekuntafi
dc.contributor.laitosFaculty of Sport and Health Sciencesen
dc.contributor.oppiaineBiomekaniikkafi
dc.contributor.oppiaineLiikuntalääketiedefi
dc.contributor.oppiaineBiomechanicsen
dc.contributor.oppiaineSports and Exercise Medicineen
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.type.coarhttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_2df8fbb1
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.format.pagerange652-659
dc.relation.issn0954-3007
dc.relation.numberinseries6
dc.relation.volume77
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© The Author(s) 2023
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.subject.ysoravintoaineet
dc.subject.ysoenergiankulutus (aineenvaihdunta)
dc.subject.ysoproteiinit
dc.subject.ysoravitsemus
dc.subject.ysokehonkoostumus
dc.subject.ysoenergiansaanti
dc.subject.ysonuoret
dc.subject.ysolapset (ikäryhmät)
dc.format.contentfulltext
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p3939
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p24540
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p4332
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p5748
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p26989
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p27286
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p11617
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p4354
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.1038/s41430-023-01276-w
jyx.fundinginformationOpen access funding provided by University of Bern.
dc.type.okmA1


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