Genetic and Epigenetic Characteristics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease–Associated Colorectal Cancer
Rajamäki, K., Taira, A., Katainen, R., Välimäki, N., Kuosmanen, A., Plaketti, R.-M., Seppälä, T. T., Ahtiainen, M., Wirta, E.-V., Vartiainen, E., Sulo, P., Ravantti, J., Lehtipuro, S., Granberg, K. J., Nykter, M., Tanskanen, T., Ristimäki, A., Koskensalo, S., Renkonen-Sinisalo, L., . . . Aaltonen, L. A. (2021). Genetic and Epigenetic Characteristics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease–Associated Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology, 161(2), 592-607. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.04.042
© 2021 the AGA Institute
Background and aims Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder associated with an elevated risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). IBD-associated CRC (IBD-CRC) may represent a distinct pathway of tumorigenesis compared to sporadic CRC (sCRC). Our aim was to comprehensively characterize IBD-associated tumorigenesis integrating multiple high-throughput approaches, and to compare the results with in-house data sets from sCRCs. Methods Whole-genome sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, RNA sequencing, genome-wide methylation analysis, and immunohistochemistry were performed using fresh frozen and formalin-fixed tissue samples of tumor and corresponding normal tissues from 31 IBD-CRC patients. Results Transcriptome-based tumor subtyping revealed the complete absence of canonical epithelial tumor subtype associated with WNT signaling in IBD-CRCs, dominated instead by mesenchymal stroma-rich subtype. Negative WNT regulators AXIN2 and RNF43 were strongly downregulated in IBD-CRCs and chromosomal gains at HNF4A, a negative regulator of WNT-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), were less frequent compared to sCRCs. Enrichment of hypomethylation at HNF4α binding sites was detected solely in sCRC genomes. PIGR and OSMR involved in mucosal immunity were dysregulated via epigenetic modifications in IBD-CRCs. Genome-wide analysis showed significant enrichment of noncoding mutations to 5’UTR of TP53 in IBD-CRCs. As previously reported, somatic mutations in APC and KRAS were less frequent in IBD-CRCs compared to sCRCs. Conclusions Distinct mechanisms of WNT pathway dysregulation skew IBD-CRCs towards mesenchymal tumor subtype, which may affect prognosis and treatment options. Increased OSMR signaling may favor the establishment of mesenchymal tumors in IBD patients. ...
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Additional information about fundingThis study was supported by grants from The Finnish Center of Excellence in Tumor Genetics (L.A.A.), Academy of Finland's professorship (L.A.A.), Cancer Foundation Finland (L.A.A.; J.-P.M.; T.S.), iCAN Digital Precision Cancer Medicine Flagship (L.A.A.; K.P.), Sigrid Jusélius Foundation (L.A.A.; A.R.; T.S.), Doctoral Programme In Biomedicine, University of Helsinki (A.T.), Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation (J.-P.M.), UEF state research funding (J.-P.M.), Emil Aaltonen Foundation (T.S.), Finnish Medical Foundation (T.S.), Finnish Cancer Organizations (A.R.), Finska Läkaresällskapet (A.R.), Helsinki University Central Hospital Research Funds (A.R.), and Instrumentarium Science Foundation (T.S.). ...
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