The cytoprotective protein MANF promotes neuronal survival independently from its role as a GRP78 cofactor
Eesmaa, Ave; Yu, Li-Ying; Göös, Helka; Nõges, Kristofer; Kovaleva, Vera; Hellman, Maarit; Zimmermann, Richard; Jung, Martin; Permi, Perttu; Varjosalo, Markku; Lindholm, Päivi; Saarma, Mart (2021). The cytoprotective protein MANF promotes neuronal survival independently from its role as a GRP78 cofactor. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 296, 100295. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100295
Published inJournal of Biological Chemistry
© 2021 the Authors
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an ER-stress regulated protein exhibiting cytoprotective properties through a poorly understood mechanism in various in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal and non-neuronal damage. Although initially characterized as a secreted neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopamine neurons, MANF has recently gained more interest for its intracellular role in regulating the ER homeostasis, including serving as a cofactor of the chaperone GRP78. We aimed for a better understanding of the neuroprotective mechanisms of MANF. Here we show for the first time that MANF promotes the survival of ER-stressed neurons in vitro as a general unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator, affecting several UPR pathways simultaneously. Interestingly, MANF does not affect naïve neurons. We hypothesize that MANF regulates UPR signaling towards a mode more compatible with neuronal survival. Screening of MANF interacting proteins from two mammalian cell lines revealed a conserved interactome of 15 proteins including several ER chaperones such as GRP78, GRP170, PDIA1 and PDIA6. Further characterization confirmed previously published finding that MANF is a cofactor of GRP78 interacting with its nucleotide binding domain. Using microscale thermophoresis and NMR spectroscopy, we discovered that MANF is an ATP binding protein and that ATP blocks the MANF-GRP78 interaction. Interestingly, functional analysis of the antiapoptotic properties of MANF mutants in cultured neurons revealed divergent roles of MANF as a GRP78 cofactor and as an antiapoptotic regulator of UPR. We conclude that the co-factor type interaction with GRP78 is dispensable for the survival-promoting activity of MANF in neurons. ...
mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) GRP78 unfolded protein response (UPR) endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) dopamine neurons neuronal cell death protein-protein interaction neuroprotection apoptosis ATP adenosiinitrifosfaatti hermosolut proteiinit ohjelmoitunut solukuolema