Physical inactivity from youth to adulthood and adult cardiometabolic risk profile
Kallio, P., Pahkala, K., Heinonen, O. J., Tammelin, T. H., Pälve, K., Hirvensalo, M., Juonala, M., Loo, B.-M., Magnussen, C. G., Rovio, S., Helajärvi, H., Laitinen, T. P., Jokinen, E., Tossavainen, P., Hutri-Kähönen, N., Viikari, J., & Raitakari, O. T. (2021). Physical inactivity from youth to adulthood and adult cardiometabolic risk profile. Preventive Medicine, 145, Article 106433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106433
Published inPreventive Medicine
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Adults with a low physical activity (PA) level are at increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases, but little is known on the association between physical inactivity since youth and cardiometabolic health in adulthood. We investigated the association of persistent physical inactivity from youth to adulthood with adult cardiometabolic risk factors. Data were drawn from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with seven follow-ups between 1980 and 2011 (baseline age 3–18 years, n = 1961). Physical activity data from a standardized questionnaire was expressed as a PA-index. Using the PA-index, four groups were formed: 1)persistently physically inactive (n = 246), 2)decreasingly active (n = 305), 3)increasingly active (n = 328), and 4)persistently active individuals (n = 1082). Adulthood cardiometabolic risk indicators included waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and fasting lipids, insulin, and glucose. Clustered cardiometabolic risk was defined using established criteria for metabolic syndrome. Persistently physically inactive group was used as a reference. Compared to the persistently physically inactive group, those who were persistently active had lower risk for adult clustered cardiometabolic risk (RR = 0.67;CI95% = 0.53–0.84; Harmonized criteria), obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2, RR = 0.76;CI95% = 0.59–0.98), high waist circumference (RR = 0.82;CI95% = 0.69–0.98), and high triglyceride (RR = 0.60;CI95% = 0.47–0.75), insulin (RR = 0.58;CI95% = 0.46–0.74) and glucose (RR = 0.77;CI95% = 0.62–0.96) concentrations as well as low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLsingle bondC) concentration (RR = 0.78;CI95% = 0.66–0.93). Comparable results were found when persistently physically inactive individuals were compared with those who increased PA. The results remained essentially similar after adjustment for education, diet, smoking, and BMI. Persistently physically inactive lifestyle since youth is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile in adulthood. Importantly, even minor increase in PA lowers the cardiometabolic risk. ...
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Additional information about fundingThe Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study was financially supported by the Academy of Finland (grants 286284 [to T.L.]; 134309 [Eye]; 126925, 121584, 124282, and 129378 [Salve]; 117787 [Gendi]; 41071 [Skidi]; 275595, 233112 [to K.P.]); Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Kuopio, Tampere, and Turku University Hospital Medical Funds (grant X51001 to T.L.); Juho Vainio Foundation; Paavo Nurmi Foundation; Finnish Foundation of Cardiovascular Research; Finnish Cultural Foundation; Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation; Emil Aaltonen Foundation; and Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation. This work was also partly funded by the National Heart Foundation of Australia Future Leader Fellowship (grant 100849 to C.G.M.) and the National Health and Medical Research Council Project (grant APP1098369). ...
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