Validation of portable 2D force binding systems for cross-country skiing
Ohtonen, O., Lindinger, S., Lemmettylä, T., Seppälä, S., & Linnamo, V. (2013). Validation of portable 2D force binding systems for cross-country skiing. Sports Engineering, 16(4), 281-296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-013-0136-9
Published inSports Engineering
© International Sports Engineering Association 2013
The aim of the present study was to design, construct and scientifically validate a two-dimensional force measurement binding system for cross-country skiing. The system consists of two force measurement bindings. One binding was designed for analysing classic skiing (vertical and anterior–posterior [along the ski] force components) and the other one for skate (freestyle) skiing (vertical and medio-lateral [transverse to the ski] force components). Validation was accomplished using a three-step process: (1) accuracy tests for the sensors in two temperatures, (2) sport-specific imitation jump test on standard force plates in a laboratory and (3) comparing the system against force measurement reference systems that are currently used when skiing on snow. During sport-specific imitation jumps, differences in peak forces and impulses between the classic binding and the reference systems ranged from 8.0 to 19.9 % and were two to three times greater compared to differences between the skate binding and the reference systems (range −5.9 to 5.5 %). However, high similarity coefficients were observed with both bindings (classic binding 0.990–0.996, skate binding 0.996–0.999) compared to the reference systems. Based on these results, the skate binding was shown to be fully valid for use in field measurements of skate skiing, whereas some improvements have to be performed in the construction and sensor placements for the classic binding (vertical as well as anterior–posterior force component). ...
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