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dc.contributor.authorSchäfer, Katharina
dc.contributor.authorSaarikallio, Suvi
dc.contributor.authorEerola, Tuomas
dc.date.accessioned2020-07-31T05:17:05Z
dc.date.available2020-07-31T05:17:05Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.citationSchäfer, Katharina; Saarikallio, Suvi; Eerola, Tuomas (2020). Music May Reduce Loneliness and Act as Social Surrogate for a Friend : Evidence from an Experimental Listening Study. Music and Science, 3. DOI: 10.1177/2059204320935709
dc.identifier.otherCONVID_36065953
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/71298
dc.description.abstractAfter losing a close other, individuals usually confide in an empathic friend to receive comfort and they seem to have a heightened desire for mood-congruent, consoling music. Hence, it has been proposed that affect-congruent music acts as a social surrogate for an empathic friend. Thus, we hypothesized that listening to comforting music, as a response to a social loss experience, provides a sense of empathic company as indicated by reduced loneliness and heightened empathy. We further predicted that distracting music would have a stronger impact on the listeners’ mood in comparison to comforting pieces. To test these assumptions, an experiment with two factors was designed: (1) Sadness was induced by an approved guided imagery method where participants visualized either their father dying (social loss), losing their eyesight (non-social loss), or shopping for groceries (control condition). (2) After the mood induction, the listening task included either comforting or distracting music that participants selected themselves. Psychometric measures for mood and loneliness were collected before and after the mood induction and after the music listening. The data were analyzed with mixed model ANOVAs. The results showed a significant reduction of loneliness and a relevant rise in empathy and mood due to listening to self-selected music, irrespective of the listener’s mood or the applied listening strategy, which suggests that private musical engagement in general can provide mood-repair and a sense of connection. This beneficial effect of private musical engagement supports the notion that not only music production but also its perception engenders social cognition. Overall, the findings corroborate the idea of music as a social surrogate.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.languageeng
dc.publisherSage Publications
dc.relation.ispartofseriesMusic and Science
dc.rightsCC BY-NC 4.0
dc.subject.othercomfort
dc.subject.otheremotion regulation
dc.subject.otherloneliness
dc.subject.othermusic listening
dc.subject.othersocial music cognition
dc.subject.othersocial surrogacy
dc.titleMusic May Reduce Loneliness and Act as Social Surrogate for a Friend : Evidence from an Experimental Listening Study
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-202007315446
dc.contributor.laitosMusiikin, taiteen ja kulttuurin tutkimuksen laitosfi
dc.contributor.laitosDepartment of Music, Art and Culture Studiesen
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.relation.issn2059-2043
dc.relation.volume3
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© The Authors 2020
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.subject.ysotunteet
dc.subject.ysomusiikki
dc.subject.ysolohdutus
dc.subject.ysoyksinäisyys
dc.subject.ysokognitiivinen musiikkitiede
dc.subject.ysokuunteleminen
dc.format.contentfulltext
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p3485
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p1808
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p15457
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p6935
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p12989
jyx.subject.urihttp://www.yso.fi/onto/yso/p9106
dc.rights.urlhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
dc.relation.doi10.1177/2059204320935709
jyx.fundinginformationThis research was financially supported by a personal grant for the first author from the Ella and Georg Ehrnrooth Foundation.


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CC BY-NC 4.0
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as CC BY-NC 4.0