Environmentally driven changes in Baltic salmon oxidative status during marine migration
Kanerva, M., Kiljunen, M., Torniainen, J., Nikinmaa, M., Dutz, J., & Vuori, K. A. (2020). Environmentally driven changes in Baltic salmon oxidative status during marine migration. Science of the Total Environment, 742, Article 140259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140259
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© 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.
The fitness and recruitment of fish stocks can be markedly affected by environmental disturbances including global warming, eutrophication and contamination. Understanding the effects of environmental stressors on salmon physiology during marine residence is of a global concern as marine survival has decreased. We present a unique combination of physiological responses - antioxidant defence and oxidative damage biomarkers, stable isotopes and contaminant exposure biomarkers - measured from adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) collected at the Baltic Sea and studied in relation to environmental variables and fitness estimates. The results demonstrate that feeding populations of salmon display marked temporal and spatial variation in oxidative status. Better oxidative status of salmon was characterized by a higher amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) and decreased lipid peroxidation (LPX), when the weight-at-age of 3–4-year old sprats was higher and contaminant exposure biomarker (EROD) was lower. Summer season conditions, which included cooler sea surface temperature (SST), higher bottom O2 and less cyanobacteria also indicated conditions for better oxidative status. Summer SST was additionally shown to affected glutathione metabolism enzyme activities. Oxidative status was associated with stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N indicating indirect effect of abiotic conditions and lower levels of the food web. Differences in condition factor and growth were associated with oxidative status in one and two sea winter salmon, respectively. Wild salmon survival was higher in years when they had higher GSH and catalase activity and lower LPX. Enhanced glutathione metabolism and increased protein carbonyls were associated with higher occurrence of yolk-sac fry mortality (M74). Our results show that oxidative status can provide information on exposure to complex combinations of environmental conditions and stressors in the wild and provide a link of physiological function to individual and population level fitness effects. ...
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Additional information about fundingThe research was funded by the Academy of Finland (grant numbers 128712 (K.Vuori) and 134139 (M. Kiljunen)), Kone Foundation (grant number 128754 (M. Kanerva)), the Finnish Foundation for Nature Conservation (K. Vuori), the Kuopio Naturalists’ Society (M. Kanerva), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (Research focus 3 “Changing ecosystems” and the Baltic Sea long term observation program (J. Dutz)) and Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation (grant numbers 2010150, 2011105, 2012506 and 201304 J. Torniainen). ...
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