Johannes Gezelius vanhempi luonnonmukaisen pedagogiikan soveltajana : comeniuslainen tulkinta
The natural pedagogical ideas of bishop Johannes Gezelius (1615-1690) are described. The main purpose of the study is a profound understanding of Gezelius' pedagogical thinking and its development. Gezelius' thoughts are interpreted especially from the Comenian viewpoint and the connection between Gezelius and Comenius is studied. The primary source material consists of Gezelius' pedagogical texts, analyzed in the historical and ideological context of 17th century Sweden. The method of the study can be described through the terms of hermeneutics. Chronologically the study follows the periods of Gezelius' lifetime. The natural idea of education Gezelius adopted in the 1640's, when he was working as Professor of Oriental languages at the University of Tartu. There he belonged to the friendship circle of reformers inspired by the Comenian spirit. According to Gezelius the natural abilities of the learner were the basis of erudition and the suitable method was at its centre. Teaching was to be accommodated to the learner's stage of development. As pastor of Stora Skedvi in the 1650's, and later as superintendent in Riga, Gezelius propagated for popular education. When elected bishop of Turku (1664) he began to reform schools and popular education in Finland. The natural ideas were now applied to the wide field of education. As a part of the catechetical tradition, Gezelius tried to implement a long-term progressive educational programme for the Finns. The method was based on the gradually progressing curriculum and the experiences of success. When students were motivated by love of studies and the method of teaching was natural, then learning was delightful, quick and easy. In his school order Methodus informandi Gezelius tried to constitute school-based popular education. Gezelius' thinking was characterized by a realistic and practical ideal. He agrees with Comenius' sense realism, translating and publishing the illustrated Latin textbook Orbis sensualium pictus, which was used intensively in Finnish schools. In Gezelius' autodidactical ideal the advanced pupils taught and helped their weaker companions. In the Comenian spirit he also moulded the contents of education into a whole. Gezelius' time was the fundamental period of building in Finland's church history, when the basic structures of education were laid for the centuries to come. The natural ideal as the leading theme in Gezelius' thinking has been fruitful in many ways. The literature published by him has been an important factor in the education of the Finns. Gezelius' activities led also to the spreading of literacy in parts of Finland at the beginning of the 18th century. ...
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