Aulis Sallisen Ratsumies ja Punainen viiva : oopperaa, musiikkiteatteria ja kulttuuriradikalismia
The objects of this study are Aulis Sallinen's first two operas, Ratsumies premiered in 1975) and Punainen Viiva (premiered n L978). The libretto for Ratsumies was written by Paavo Haavikko. The libretto for Punainen Viiva was written by the composer and is based on Ilmari Kianto's novel of the same name. The aim of the study is, on one hand, to examine the narrative overall message of these operas, and, on the other, to survey the development of Sallinen's compositional techniques between the years 1960 and 1976. The operas are studied as signification systems. As a theoretical frame of reference, theories about signification systems by Jakobson (1971), Nattiez (1991) and Padilla (1997), are used. The works are examined semiotically, as entities comprised of text, music and theatrical expression (Barthes 1984). Musical signification is studied on the basis of the core motif - body motif – character motif classification devised by Kalevi Aho (7977). The operas have been contextualized in two ways. In the cultural-historic context they can be seen as part of the boom of the Finnish opera in the 1970s, which is considered the most significant Finnish musical phenomenon since Sibelius. The other context comprises Sallinen's selected compositional works from the years 1960-1976. The study shows that Aulis Sallinen's style of composition has changed from the early 1960s expression influenced by dodecaphony to a more tonal style. The leading principle in Sallinen's compositional technique is to compose the piece deductively from one core motifs which will form into the compositional material of the whole work. In these operas the character motifs, which evolve directly from the core motif are significant to the content. In Ratsumies these motifs are used to describe the relationship between man and woman. In Punainen Viiva the motifs evolving from the core motif describe the double meaning of the red line, the voting and blood, also evident.in Kianto's novel. Sallinen's style of composition in these operas is a logical development from his previous works. Sallinen proceeds from neotonality and triads that are a second or third apart to aleatorics and clusters. ...
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