What does the science say? The diversity of methods to synthesize knowledge
Dicks, L., Failler, P., Ferretti, J., Haddaway, N., Hernandez, M., Livoreil, B., Mattsson, B., Randall, N., Rodela, R., Saarikoski, H., Santamaria, L., Velizarova, E., Wittmer, H. and Young, J. (2018). What does the science say? The diversity of methods to synthesize knowledge. 5th European Congress of Conservation Biology. doi: 10.17011/conference/eccb2018/107806
© the Authors, 2018
Effective, unbiased and transparent methods of knowledge synthesis are a crucial element of science-policy-society interactions. A vast and rapidly expanding body of knowledge is relevant to many policy decisions. This includes scientific knowledge, technical know-how and experiential knowledge held by experts, and indigenous and local knowledge. Synthesizing knowledge within timescales relevant to policy makers is a real challenge, but many methods are now available to do so. We have identified 21 knowledge synthesis methods that could be used to answer questions from policymakers or other stakeholders . It is not an exhaustive list, but those we consider most useful for current science-policy-society interfaces in environment and natural resource management. The methods range from focus groups, which can be done in just a few days and gather local place-based knowledge, including opinions and values from small groups; to structured systematic reviews, which follow an a priori protocol, can take a year or more, require substantial scientific expertise to complete and address a narrow, well-defined scientific question. The methods can draw on different sources of tacit or codified knowledge: scientific, indigenous and local knowledge, technical know-how, and anecdotal evidence. We have developed concise guidance on each method, providing information on how it works, what it can achieve, what type of questions can be tackled, how much it costs, and what specialist resources are required. The guidance also summarises the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method. We have collected example case studies to illustrate the use of each of the different methods to inform design or implementation of environmental policies across Europe. Building on previous work [2,3], and in partnership with policymakers, we have devised a process for structured dialogue between knowledge-holders and knowledge requesters, to select an appropriate knowledge synthesis methods or set of methods. This talk provides an overview of the methods and describes the method selection process, using recent examples from the EKLIPSE project (www.eklipse-mechanism.eu/). References  Dicks, L. V., Haddaway, N., Hernández-Morcillo, M., Mattsson, B., Randall, N., Failler, P., . . . Wittmer, H. (2017). Knowledge synthesis for environmental decisions: an evaluation of existing methods, and guidance for their selection, use and development – a report from the EKLIPSE project.  Pullin, A., Frampton, G., Jongman, R. et al. (2016) Selecting appropriate methods of knowledge synthesis to inform biodiversity policy. Biodiversity and Conservation 25: 1285.  Cook, C. N., Nichols, S. J., Webb, J. A., Fuller, R. A., & Richards, R. M. (2017). Simplifying the selection of evidence synthesis methods to inform environmental decisions: A guide for decision makers and scientists. Biological Conservation, 213, Part A, 135-145. ...
PublisherOpen Science Centre, University of Jyväskylä
ConferenceECCB2018: 5th European Congress of Conservation Biology. 12th - 15th of June 2018, Jyväskylä, Finland
MetadataShow full item record
- ECCB 2018 
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