Aquatic effects and risk assessment of multi-metal leachates from metal mining and acid sulphate soils
Leachates and effluents from acid sulphate soils and metal mining compose a significant part of metal and sulphate loads into aquatic environments in Finland. Acid sulphate soils have deteriorated the water systems of the Ostrobothnian region for several decades. Discharges from metal mining have similar characteristics as leachates from acid sulphate soils. The extent of metal contamination and its effects were surveyed altogether in 10 estuaries in western Finland and in 9 lakes affected by biomining and conventional mining activities. Assessment also included monitoring data and toxicity tests with benthic macroinvertebrates. Metal concentrations in the estuary sediments were elevated and acidity was transported to the estuaries. The most evident acid sulphate soil induced effect was deterioration of the benthic communities in the estuaries. The risk of having negative effects due to acid sulphate soils was elevated in 9 out of 10 estuaries. Effects observed in the mining-affected lakes were comparable to effects induced by acid sulphate soil leachates. In both mining sites, concentrations of the ore metals were elevated especially in the lake sediments close to the mine. Sequential extractions of the sediments suggested that the partitioning of the ore metals Ni and Cu in the studied sediments were of anthropogenic origin. The laboratory toxicity tests with the standard test species Lumbriculus variegatus indicated reduced growth and reproduction and altered behavioural responses, with growth and reproduction being more sensitive endpoints. However, behavioural responses seemed to be sensitive enough for quick screening-level assessments. The field-collected lake sediments did not sustain their original properties, such as pH, which made their ecotoxicity assessment challenging. Thus, there remains a need to develop methods for comprehensive risk assessment of challenging sediments. ...
- Artikkeli I: Wallin J., Karjalainen A.K., Schultz E., Järvistö J., Leppänen M.T. & Vuori K.-M. 2015. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries. Science of The Total Environment 508: 452–461. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.073
- Artikkeli II:Wallin J., Karjalainen J.S., Väisänen A., Kukkonen J.V.K. & Karjalainen A.K. 2018. Ecotoxicity assessment of mining-affected lake sediments by Lumbriculus variegatus biotest. Manuscript.
- Artikkeli III: Wallin, J., Vuori, K.-M., Väisänen, A., Salmelin, J., & Karjalainen, A. (2018). Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida) biological responses and sediment sequential extractions indicate ecotoxicity of lake sediments contaminated by biomining. Science of the Total Environment, 645, 1253-1263. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.117
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Wallin, Jaana; Karjalainen, Juha; Väisänen, Ari; Karjalainen, Anna K. (Springer, 2021)Boreal lakes with soft water and low buffering capacity are susceptible to excess ion loading resulting from metal mining. The impact of two Finish mining sites in downstream lakes was assessed with a chronic sediment ...
New applications of zoobenthos measurements for risk assessment of chemicals in aquatic ecosystems Salmelin, Johanna (University of Jyväskylä, 2015)Benthic animals in aquatic ecosystems suffer from various anthropogenic pollutants. A challenge in risk assessment of chemicals in aquatic ecosystems (i.e. ecological risk assessment) has been to balance cost-efficiency ...
Ecotoxicity assessment of boreal lake sediments affected by metal mining: Sediment quality triad approach complemented with metal bioavailability and body residue studies Väänänen, Kristiina; Abel, Sebastian; Oksanen, Tähti; Nybom, Inna; Leppänen, Matti T.; Asikainen, Harri; Rasilainen, Maj; Karjalainen, Anna; Akkanen, Jarkko (Elsevier BV, 2019)There are several methods for studying metal-contaminated freshwater sediments, but more information is needed on which methods to include in ecological risk assessment. In this study, we compliment the traditional Sediment ...
Improving statistical classification methods and ecological status assessment for river macroinvertebrates Ärje, Johanna (University of Jyväskylä, 2016)Aquatic ecosystems are facing a growing number of human-induced stressors and the need to implement more biomonitoring to assess the ecological status of water bodies is eminent. This dissertation aims at providing tools ...
Effects of bioheapleaching technology utilizing metal mine emissions on fish in boreal freshwaters Arola, Hanna (University of Jyväskylä, 2018)Emissions from metal mining activities are known to deteriorate the quality of aquatic habitats and impair the condition and reproductive potential of fish. Metal extraction by biomining methods has been considered to ...