MODERN VOLLEYBALL ANALYSIS AND TRAINING PERIODIZATION
The purpose of this study is to clarify the scientific approach to modern volleyball at men´s high-level and introduce the most influential studies, which still are not very well implemented in the world of volleyball. On individual level, requirements of modern volleyball consist psychological aspects like inner motivational and maintaining the focus during the game, which is difficult because there are a lot of breaks and successful and unsuccessful rallies in every volleyball match. Inner motivated player can push himself easier to the limits of his capacity during the game. Good focus and team routines keep the difference between won and lost rally small so that the player and the team can perform consistently. (Liukkonen etc. 2006.) Reading the game is the most important skill in volleyball and it can be trained with game-like training sessions and stop & anticipate -video sessions. Motor learning is the key for learning volleyball skills. Game-like specific training is the most important part to learn volleyball skills. It is also beneficial for player to see the demonstration of the skill and have some images provided by co-learner or expert coach. Correct eyework is essential when reading the game ability is improved – what to see, when and why. (Berry & Abernethy 2003.) (McGown 2001.) Physiologically it is necessary for modern volleyball player to be able to produce a lot of energy in very short period of time (explosiveness) and also to recover between the rallies (in 15 seconds), during the time-outs (30-60 seconds) and between the sets (3mins). Both capacities are needed: aerobic and anaerobic systems. There haven´t been measured high lactate levels in modern volleyball matches, so the most important part of volleyball training is to get better at volleyball skills. Volleyball training session is a long exercise itself, so extra endurance training is not needed. Physical training sessions should be implemented to training plans to prevent injuries, increase the vertical jump ability, increase the velocity of an arm-swing and power produced by body to hit and to serve ball harder and to make moving on a court more efficient. Still physical training sessions should be supportive to main goal which is getting better at volleyball skills so it is better to improve above-mentioned physical elements in a way not to make players too tired, which means short sessions, high intensity safely (submaximal weights) and low volume (to prevent delayed-onset-muscle-soreness). Thus the aim of physical training should be to prevent injuries and to make players stronger and faster. (Gionet 1980, Gastin 2001.) (McGown 2001.) On team level, the leadership matters a lot. Leader should create the trust and truly connect with the players he works with and help them grow. Also group dynamics is important as it is beneficial for performance to have strong binds inside the team. Team should have the same technical base in each volleyball skill because it makes the playing efficient both in individual and team level and tactical elements are easy to build on it. (McGown 2001.) The most important skills in modern volleyball are attack, serve and reception. Thus the most of the training time should be spent focusing on these skills, offence and serve/reception. Anyhow, this does not mean training separate sessions to these skills, but volleyball training should follow the same principles as volleyball in matches. There is being said by expert coach Marv Dunphy: “The best serving drill is serve-pass-set-hit. The best passing drill is serve-pass-set-hit. The best setting drill is serve-pass-set-hit. The best hitting drill is serve-pass-set-hit.” This describes the idea of specificity pretty well. Some conclusions can be found from the results of relevant volleyball studies, which are serving a lot of moderate (never too easy, but risk management should be considered according to the level of opponent team) serves in, keeping the ball in play when it cannot be killed and ball control in reception. All this lead to the concept of having patience on right times and balance it with being brave when there is a good chance for that. All this comes down to an ability to recognize the situations and read the game. (Fellingham & Reese 2004.) During the game, own serving has to be matched with opponent´s modified side-out efficiency. Risk management is required. (Burton 2008.) Training program, optimal day rhythm and nutrition are essential parts of modern volleyball player´s everyday routines to follow. Physical training program which allows maximal improvements every day in volleyball sessions is challenge for a coach. There is an example shown in this study, which is done by the method of non-linear periodization. ...