Optical Forging of Graphene into Three-Dimensional Shapes
Johansson, A., Myllyperkiö, P., Koskinen, P., Aumanen, J., Koivistoinen, J., Tsai, H.-C., . . . Pettersson, M. (2017). Optical Forging of Graphene into Three-Dimensional Shapes. Nano Letters, 17 (10), 6469-6474. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03530
Published inNano Letters
© 2017 American Chemical Society. This is a final draft version of an article whose final and definitive form has been published by ACS. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
Atomically thin materials, such as graphene, are the ultimate building blocks for nanoscale devices. But although their synthesis and handling today are routine, all efforts thus far have been restricted to flat natural geometries, since the means to control their three-dimensional (3D) morphology has remained elusive. Here we show that, just as a blacksmith uses a hammer to forge a metal sheet into 3D shapes, a pulsed laser beam can forge a graphene sheet into controlled 3D shapes in the nanoscale. The forging mechanism is based on laser-induced local expansion of graphene, as confirmed by computer simulations using thin sheet elasticity theory.