Protoparvovirus knocking at the nuclear door
Mäntylä, E., Kann, M., & Vihinen-Ranta, M. (2017). Protoparvovirus knocking at the nuclear door. Viruses, 9 (10), 286. doi:10.3390/v9100286
DisciplineSolu- ja molekyylibiologia
© 2017 the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Protoparvoviruses target the nucleus due to their dependence on the cellular reproduction machinery during the replication and expression of their single-stranded DNA genome. In recent years, our understanding of the multistep process of the capsid nuclear import has improved, and led to the discovery of unique viral nuclear entry strategies. Preceded by endosomal transport, endosomal escape and microtubule-mediated movement to the vicinity of the nuclear envelope, the protoparvoviruses interact with the nuclear pore complexes. The capsids are transported actively across the nuclear pore complexes using nuclear import receptors. The nuclear import is sometimes accompanied by structural changes in the nuclear envelope, and is completed by intranuclear disassembly of capsids and chromatinization of the viral genome. This review discusses the nuclear import strategies of protoparvoviruses and describes its dynamics comprising active and passive movement, and directed and diffusive motion of capsids in the molecularly crowded environment of the cell. ...