Elämänarvot keski-iässä : psykometrinen rakenne ja yhteydet persoonallisuuden piirteisiin ja psyykkiseen hyvinvointiin
This study examined, first, basic human values’ and life goals’ factor structures and the reciprocal links between these measures; second, the connections between personality traits and values, and possible gender differences in these relations; and third, the relations between life goals and mental well-being, and whether life goals act as mediators in the associations between personality traits and mental well-being. The participants were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (JYLS). Data used here were collected at ages 42 and 50 (n = 212–242). The results yielded a 14- factor value structure (societal concern, tolerance, protecting nature, caring, dependability, autonomy of thought, autonomy of action, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, tradition, security, conformity, and power). The 14 value factors further formed four higher order value types (self-transcendence, self-enhancement, conservation, and openness to change) and two higher order value dimensions (person- and social-focused). For life goals, three factors were found: soul-searching (items of mental performance, independence, life reflection, and death), basic needs (sexuality, family, and work), and pleasure (hobbies, relationships, and health). The 14 value factors and three life goal factors showed several positive and significant associations. The personality traits of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness contributed moderately to 10 of the 14 values. The relationships between personality traits and values were partially different in men and women. In women, leisure-related goals (hobbies, relationships, and sexuality) were positively connected with emotional, psychological, and social well-being. In men, performance-related goals (mental performance, family, work, and economic welfare) positively contributed to psychological and social well-being, and leisure-related goals social well-being. Moreover, in women, investment in leisure-related goals partially mediated the positive associations from low neuroticism and high extraversion to emotional well-being, while in men investment in performance-related goals partially mediated the positive associations between extraversion and psychological well-being. ...
PublisherUniversity of Jyväskylä
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