Studies of twodimensional and threedimensional phononic crystal structures
This thesis focuses on studying phononic crystal structures. More specifically,
it is aimed at fabrication and measurement of thermal properties of twodimensional
(2D) periodic microstructures and threedimensional (3D) nanostructures. There is
great interest in understanding, manipulating and considering application perspective
of minimizing of thermal transport in periodic structures. Periodic structures
have been studied more on their optical properties, but this thesis places emphasis
on their application of manipulating heat.
A process of fabricating twodimensional hole array phononic (2D PnC) structures
is described here. It consists of membrane preparation, superconductorinsulatornormal
metalinsulatorsuperconductor (SINIS) tunnel junction fabrication and etching
of 2D PnC structures. Simple square array geometries of periods 4, 8, 16 m were
fabricated, keeping filling factor of holes as 0.7. Thermal conductance of phononic
structures with the three different periods were measured and compared with uncut
membranes at temperatures from 50 mK to 1.2 K. All PnC structures gave a lower
thermal conductance than membrane. In addition, thermal conductance was measured
on membranes by different types of SINIS junction pairs. The variables were
the geometry, the normal metal material and the normal metal length, which all
affected the measured result. It is thus important to keep the SINIS heaters and thermometers
the same when studying thermal conductance and its dependence on the
period of the PnC structure. Additionally, sometimes superconductornormal metalsuperconductor
(SNS) junction pairs were accidentally made. Thermal conductance
measured using a SNS structure as a heater and SINIS structure as a thermometer is also shown.
We also address the fabrication of 3D colloidal polystyrene(PS) nanosphere
PnC structures on plain chips and the statistics of the deposition process, selfassembly
by vertical dipping. Combinations of dipping angle of 45 and 90 , withdrawal
speed of 0.01 mm/min to 0.05 mm/min and nanosphere colloidal solution
concentration of 0.02%, 0.2%, 2%, 5% and 10% were studied. Colloidal 3D PnC
structure of facecentered cubic (fcc) crystal domains were selfassembled. Silicon
chips with etched microscale boxes were fabricated and dipped vertically into 10%
concentration PS colloidal solution at withdrawal at speed of 0.01 mm/min to 0.04
mm/min. Lower speed, higher concentration and 90 vertical dipping produce larger
3D PnC domain sizes on average. It was found that one big domain could fill a 20
m deep confined box no larger than 200 m length. However, there were always
cracks between the domains and the edges of the box. Therefore, a polymer box
was developed and used instead as a confinement box. It was fabricated by three
dimensional lithography (3DL), using two types of resist: IPL 780 and IPDIP. Glass
substrates with 10 m high IPL780 resist polymer boxes of hollow area of 100 m
100 m were dipped into a solution of 0.5%, 1% and 2% concentration of 260 nm
diameter polystyrene nanospheres at withdrawal speed of 0.01 and 0.02 mm/min.
Only the sample with 1% concentration at withdrawal speed of 0.01 mm/min gave
good results. There were no PS nanosphere selfassembled on top of IPL780 box.
However, there were several domains inside one box. So, a 20 m high polymer box
of 50 m 50 m area was fabricated on silicon chips. They were dipped into a PS
nanosphere solution of 1%, 2 % and 5 % concentration at the speed of 0.01 mm/min.
Finally, a method was also developed to protect PS colloidal PnC structures from
deformation and dissolution. As expected, there was only one domain inside the box
formed from the concentration of 1%. Unexpected, there were PS nanospheres also
on top of the sides of IPDIP boxes. PnC structures were treated by ebeam irradiation
and protected by a capping layer of AlOx. Aluminum wires were successfully
deposited on top of the PnC structures, which is promising for mounting thermal
conductance measurement devices on top.
...
Publisher
University of JyväskyläISBN
9789513967024ISSN Search the Publication Forum
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