Mehrsprachigkeit von Lernern mit Migrationshintergrund im finnischen Fremdsprachenunterricht : Perspektiven der Lerner, Lehrpersonen und Erziehungsberechtigen
Published inJyväskylä studies in humanities
DisciplineSaksan kieli ja kulttuuri
The goal of this study is to examine how the relatively new phenomenon of multilingualism in the Finnish education system is presently managed in foreign language classes in the Finnish comprehensive school. The focus is on how bi- and multilingual learners with migration background can benefit from their previous individual language experiences, language learning experiences and language awareness processes, and how these function as a resource for their further (foreign) language learning process. Until now migration research in the Finnish context concentrating on language learning mainly consists of second language acquisition. This study, however, focusses on foreign language learning of learners with migration background and, using mixed data collection methods and triangulating the data, explores it from the perspective of learners, foreign language teachers and legal guardians. The data was collected drawing upon questionnaires and self-portraits of learners from three comprehensive schools (N=34), semi-structured interviews with foreign language teachers (N=6), and mothers of children with migration background (N=4), and also written answers to two questions from nearly all interviewed teachers (N=5). The data was analyzed through content analysis, where three key concepts with regard to multilingualism were central to the analysis of the data: perception of (die Wahrnehmung), attitude to (die Haltung), and dealing with (der Umgang) multilingualism. The results indicate that most of the learners with migration background have a positive appreciation and attitude to their own multilingualism. They engage in multilingual interactions with different people in various situations nearly every day. They feel supported by their classmates and foreign language teachers, and most of them are very open-minded and motivated to learn other foreign languages. The preconditions for their foreign language learning process are perceived as fairly good. The foreign language teachers respectfully express their willingness to interact with the learners of migrant background (mainly in Finnish); they particularly look after these learners, which is also supported by the learners’ mothers. The results also show that the native languages of the learners with migration background were often present for themselves during the foreign language lessons. For instance, they translate new words not only into Finnish but into their own native language(s) and they compare information belonging to cultural aspects of the new foreign language with Finnish and their own culture(s). Learners can recognize benefits from their multilingual know-how and are aware of synergy- and transfer processes between their native languages and the foreign language. Although foreign language teachers also realize that the learners’ multilingual skills are a resource for the learners themselves and for the whole group of foreign language learners, the findings show that the native languages of the bi- and multilingual learners are more or less ignored during their foreign language learning lessons. The study indicates that on the one hand the foreign language teachers feel uncertain about dealing with the native languages of their learners, and on the other hand they have a lack of pedagogical methods/concepts to challenge and support these bi- and multilingual learners. Furthermore, the results suggest that foreign language teachers are not well informed about both previous individual language experiences and language learning experiences of the learners with migration background and are not involved in the cooperation between the legal guardians and the school. The mothers pointed out that nobody has asked them about their language backgrounds nor had they met a foreign language teacher at all. According to the results of this study it seems quite evident that in the future foreign language teachers training could concentrate on finding effective pedagogical methods and concepts so that multilingual learners with migration background can benefit effectively from their multilingualism during the foreign language learning lessons. Keywords: bilingualism, equality, esteem, Finnish education system, foreign language learning, individual language experience, migration, multilingualism, language awareness process, language learning experience, resource ...
Alternative titlePerspektiven der Lerner, Lehrpersonen und Erziehungsberechtigen
PublisherUniversity of Jyväskylä
bilingualism equality esteem Finnish education system foreign language learning individual language experience migration multilingualism language awareness process language learning experience resource kaksikielisyys monikielisyys toinen kieli kielet oppiminen opetus maahanmuuttajatausta kulttuuritausta oppimiskokemukset peruskoulu pedagogiikka Suomi
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