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dc.contributor.authorBöckerman, Petri
dc.contributor.authorHyytinen, Ari
dc.contributor.authorKaprio, Jaakko
dc.date.accessioned2015-07-07T11:14:50Z
dc.date.available2015-07-07T11:14:50Z
dc.date.issued2015
dc.identifier.citationBöckerman, P., Hyytinen, A., & Kaprio, J. (2015). Smoking and long-term labour market outcomes. <em>Tobacco Control</em>, 24 (4), 348-353. <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051303">doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051303</a>
dc.identifier.otherTUTKAID_62982
dc.identifier.urihttps://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/46482
dc.description.abstractObjective To examine the long-term effects of smoking on labour market outcomes using twin data matched to register-based individual information on earnings. Method Twin data for Finnish men born 1945–1957 was used to remove the shared environmental and genetic factors. The results were subjected to extensive robustness testing. Lifetime cigarette consumption was measured by (cumulative) cigarette pack-years in early adulthood. The average of an individual's earnings (and, alternatively, taxable income) was measured over a subsequent 15-year period in later adulthood. Results Smokers have lower long-term income and earnings. For example, controlling for the shared environmental and genetic factors using the data on genetically identical twins, smoking is negatively associated with lifetime income (p=0.015). The negative association was also robust to the use of various covariates, such as education, health indicators and extraversion. Conclusions Smoking is negatively related to long-term labour market outcomes. The provision of information about the indirect monetary costs of smoking may thus complement the policy efforts that aim at educating consumers about the health costs of smoking.
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherBMJ Group; Department of Public Health & Community Medicine
dc.relation.ispartofseriesTobacco Control
dc.subject.othersmokingen
dc.subject.otherpopulation healthen
dc.subject.othereconomyen
dc.subject.otherlabour marketen
dc.titleSmoking and long-term labour market outcomes
dc.typearticle
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:fi:jyu-201506292466
dc.contributor.laitosKauppakorkeakoulufi
dc.contributor.laitosSchool of Business and Economicsen
dc.contributor.oppiaineBasic or discovery scholarship
dc.contributor.oppiaineTaloustiede
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/SubmittedJournalArticle
dc.date.updated2015-06-29T09:15:06Z
dc.type.coarjournal article
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.format.pagerange348-353
dc.relation.issn0964-4563
dc.relation.numberinseries4
dc.relation.volume24
dc.type.versionacceptedVersion
dc.rights.copyright© 2015 Authors. This is a final draft version of an article whose final and definitive form has been published by BMJ Publishing group. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccessfi
dc.relation.doi10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051303


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