Low Levels of Mitochondrial DNA and Symbiont Diversity in the Worldwide Agricultural Pest, the Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Kapantaidaki, D., Ovcarenko, I., Fytrou, N., Knott, E., Bourtzis, K., & Tsagkarakou, A. (2015). Low Levels of Mitochondrial DNA and Symbiont Diversity in the Worldwide Agricultural Pest, the Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Heredity, 106 (1), 80-92. doi:10.1093/jhered/esu061
Published inJournal of Heredity
DisciplineEkologia ja evoluutiobiologia
© The American Genetic Association 2014 (Oxford University Press).
Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. Little is known about the genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. Here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 T. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. Genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny reconstruction delineated 2 clades characterized by limited sequence divergence: one clade comprised samples only from the Northern hemisphere whereas the other comprised samples from a broader geographical range. The presence of secondary symbionts was determined by PCR using primers specific for Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Fritschea. Most individuals examined harbored at least one secondary endosymbiont, and Arsenophonus was detected in almost all male and female individuals. Wolbachia was present at a much lower frequency, and Cardinium was detected in only a few individuals from Greece. Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Fritschea were not found. Additionally, we set out to further analyze Arsenophonus diversity by multilocus sequence typing analysis; however, the Arsenophonus sequences did not exhibit any polymorphism. Our results revealed remarkably low diversity in both mtDNA and symbionts in this worldwide agricultural pest, contrasting sharply with that of the ecologically similar Bemisia tabaci. ...