Fungal-Mediated Multitrophic Interactions - Do Grass Endophytes in Diet Protect Voles from Predators?
Saari, S., Sundell, J., Huitu, O., Helander, M., Ketoja, E., Ylönen, H., & Saikkonen, K. (2010). Fungal-Mediated Multitrophic Interactions - Do Grass Endophytes in Diet Protect Voles from Predators?. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9845. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009845
Published inPLoS ONE
© 2010 Saari et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Plant-associated micro-organisms such as mycotoxin-producing endophytes commonly have direct negative effects on herbivores. These effects may be carried over to natural enemies of the herbivores, but this has been rarely explored. We examined how feeding on Neotyphodium endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E−) meadow ryegrass (Scherodonus pratensis) affects body mass, population size and mobility of sibling voles (Microtus levis), and whether the diet mediates the vulnerability of voles to least weasel (Mustela nivalis nivalis) predation. Because least weasels are known to be olfactory hunters, we also examined whether they are able to distinguish olfactory cues of voles fed on E+ and E− diets. Neither body mass of voles nor population size differed between diets. However, contrary to our prediction, least weasels preyed more often on voles fed with E− grass than on voles fed with E+ grass. The mobility of voles fed on E+ grass was reduced compared to voles fed on E− grass, but this effect was unrelated to risk of predation. Least weasels appeared unable to distinguish between excrement odours of voles between the two treatments. Our results suggest that consumption of endophytic grass is not directly deleterious to sibling voles. What's more, consumption of endophytes appears to be advantageous to voles by reducing risk of mammalian predation. Our study is thus the first to demonstrate an effect of plant-associated microbial symbionts on herbivore-predator interactions in vertebrate communities. ...
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2010 Saari et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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