Effects of state anxiety on music performance: Relationship between the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 subscales and piano performance
Yoshie, M., Shigemasu, K., Kudo, K. & Ohtsuki, T. (2009). Effects of state anxiety on music performance: Relationship between the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 subscales and piano performance. Musicae Scientiae, 13(1), 55-84.
This study investigated the relationship between the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R, Cox, Martens, & Russell, 2003; Jones & Swain, 1992; Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990) subscales and the quality of music performance to compare the anxiety-performance relationship in pianists with that in athletes and to gain insights into the effective coping strategies for music performance anxiety (MPA). Fifty one students (15 women and 36 men) aged 18-26 years (M = 20.6, SD = 2.3) completed the CSAI-2R just prior to their individual piano performances in a concert, followed by the self-evaluation of performance quality. The CSAI-2R demonstrated adequate psychometric properties when applied to MPA. Consistent with the previous findings in sport psychology, correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses showed that self-confidence intensity positively predicted global performance (p < .001). Cognitive anxiety intensity negatively predicted technical accuracy (p < .05), while cognitive anxiety direction positively predicted global performance (p < .05). On the other hand, the correlation between somatic anxiety and performance was non-significant. We conclude that acquiring self-confidence, reducing pre-performance cognitive anxiety, and interpreting the symptoms of cognitive anxiety as being facilitative to the subsequent performance will improve performance quality. Based on the present findings, the effectiveness of mental skills training for athletes and some educational methods in treating MPA is discussed. ...