Pianisti cembalistina : cembalotekniikka cembalonsoittoa aloittavan pianistin ongelmana
Published inJyväskylä studies in humanities
Mäkinen on kartoittanut väitöstutkimuksessaan niitä soittoteknisiä ongelmia, joita cembalonsoittoa aloittava pianisti kohtaa uuden soittimen parissa. Hän haastatteli seitsemää cembalistia, jotka edustavat maan terävintä kärkeä sekä esiintyvinä taiteilijoina että cembalonsoitonopettajinaThis study proposes to chart, classify and describe, on the basis of interview material, the problems in playing technique that pianists encounter in learning the harpsichord. Additionally, I investigate the various views on harpsichord technique held by experts familiar with both its playing and teaching.The material consists of seven comprehensive interviews, to which I applied phenomenographical context analysis and a comparative analysis method derived from the grounded theory method developed by Glaser and Strauss.A good, relaxed, unstrained and ergonomical playing posture was seen as the basic premise to learning. All experts stressed the importance of active and quick fingers, but also called on avoiding overly wide movement of hands, arms and body and excessive force. Articulation was clearly regarded as the most important expressive means in harpsichord playing, which should be stressed right from the outset. Controlling touch and tone was known to demand patience and adaptation from beginning cembalists. With regard to touch and tone, excessive force should be avoided (the finger should feel the scratching of the plectrum against the string), the playing should be close to the instrument and preferably at the front edge of the keys.The study raised a few problem areas, in which harpsichord playing differs clearly from piano playing. First of all, players accustomed to pianos are likely to use too much force on the harpsichord and allow their body, arms and wrists to move in inappropriately wide arcs. Initially, the difference between the familiar legato playing on the piano and the loose basic touch on the harpsichord, the “articulated melody playing” may also feel difficult. Even more time and persistence are required in learning nuanced articulation. Further areas of practice are time staggering for chords and arpeggio technique as well as the new technique required in moving to a low hand position.The interviewees also showed individual differences in their opinions, mainly in stressing certain matters above others: one stressed the clavichord as a pedagogical instrument, another felt that figured bass should be started in the first year, another laid more than usual stress on the importance of dynamics in harpsichord playing and two insisted on the low hand position. In addition to these major areas of emphasis they had certain smaller differences of opinion. Still, in the central matters all cembalists were quite unanimous. ...
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