Intracerebral Borna disease virus infection of bank voles leading to peripheral spread and reverse transcription of viral RNA

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dc.contributor.author Kinnunen, Paula M.
dc.contributor.author Inkeroinen, Hanna
dc.contributor.author Ilander, Mette
dc.contributor.author Heikkilä, Henna P.
dc.contributor.author Kallio, Eva
dc.contributor.author Koskela, Esa
dc.contributor.author Mappes, Tapio
dc.contributor.author Palva, Airi
dc.contributor.author Vaheri, Antti
dc.contributor.author Kipar, Anja
dc.contributor.author Vapalahti, Olli
dc.date.accessioned 2012-08-21T10:24:24Z
dc.date.available 2012-08-21T10:24:24Z
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.identifier.citation Kinnunen PM, Inkeroinen H, Ilander M, Kallio ER, Heikkilä HP, et al. (2011) Intracerebral Borna Disease Virus Infection of Bank Voles Leading to Peripheral Spread and Reverse Transcription of Viral RNA. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23622. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023622
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/38342
dc.description.abstract Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo. We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of bornavirus transmission. fi
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Public Library of Science
dc.relation.ispartofseries PLoS ONE
dc.rights © 2011 Kinnunen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.subject.other bornavirus fi
dc.subject.other virukset fi
dc.title Intracerebral Borna disease virus infection of bank voles leading to peripheral spread and reverse transcription of viral RNA
dc.type Article en
dc.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:jyu-201208212211
dc.subject.kota 118
dc.contributor.laitos Bio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitos fi
dc.contributor.laitos The Department of Biological and Environmental Science en
dc.type.uri http://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticle
dc.identifier.doi doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023622
dc.description.version Publisher's PDF
eprint.status http://purl.org/eprint/type/status/PeerReviewed

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