Since the 1970s local capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) populations have been in severe decline in Scotland from over 20,000 individuals to just over 1200, 80% of which are confined to the Spey Valley in the Cairngorms National Park. This decline is thought to be due to a number of factors such as climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation. However, these issues are further compounded by increasing disturbance from human activity. In recent years, tourism and outdoor recreation have risen dramatically in the Cairngorms National Park leading to potentially increased disturbance events. For this reason it is important to understand the social dynamics that surround capercaillie conservation within the Cairngorms National Park. The aims of this paper are to identify current patterns of behaviour, understanding, and values amongst visitors to the Cairngorms National Park with relation to capercaillie conservation, and looking to how to best influence these behaviours to increase capercaillie productivity. To understand these issues an interdisciplinary approach was used where 200 social surveys, based on the theory of planned behaviour, were completed in Abernethy by visitors and recreationists. Visitor profiles gained from these surveys will be integrated into capercaillie niche models to try and identify which types of park user have more of an impact on capercaillie populations, and highlight areas where conservation efforts may need to be focussed. Results from this project will not only inform future research on fragile species within tourism environments but will feed directly into the Cairngorms National Park Authorities capercaillie conservation framework.